ch 18 textbook

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Janelle Leboutillier

Ch 18 Neuroscience Notes  Affective neuroscience is the branch of neuroscience applied to the investigation of the neural basis of emotion and mood  James-Lange theory of emotion  Proposed that we experience emotions as a result of physiological changes in our body. So for example we feel sad because we cry  According to them, the physiological changes are the emotion. So if they are removed, the emotion goes as well  Criticism of this is that emotions are experienced by people who have spinal injuries, even though sensation is lost. Also that various emotional experiences share the same physiological change (such as increased heart rate in both anger and fear), so how would one distinguish them?  Cannon-Bard theory of emotion  Proposed that emotional experience can occur independently of emotional expression  So in this case the stimulus is perceived and input is sent to the thalamus. The pattern of activation here then determines emotional response. Or we cry before we feel sad  Criticism of this includes that some emotions are associated with discernable physiological responses, such as laughing with happiness. Also that forcing oneself to express an emotion could lead to an emotion. Such as smiling in order to feel happy  Look at diagram on page 566  An unconscious emotion is an emotion that is produced without conscious perception of what is causing the emotion  Scientists in the past suggested there is a system that processes emotion: the limbic system  Broca’s limbic lobe: pg 569 figure 18.4  Papez circuit: pg 569 figure 18.5  Phineas Gage  Pole went through his frontal lobe  This led to emotional outbursts and changes in Gage’s personality  Kluver-Bucy syndrome  Results from temporal lobe lobectomy  Caused dramatic change in monkeys aggressive tendencies and responses to fearful situations  The monkeys had good visual perception but poor recognition. They relied on placing objects in their mouth to recognise them  The amygdala processes fear and aggression. Kluver-Bucy syndrome probably results from amygdala destruction  The amygdala is a complex of nuclei divided into three groups 1. Basolateral nuclei: all sensory systems feed here in particular 2. Corticomedial nucle
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