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Canada (158,402)
Neuroscience (289)
NROC61H3 (42)
Chapter 25

Chapter 25

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Le Boutillier

CHAPTER 25MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF LEARNING AND MEMORYIntroductionstudies on invertebrate animals have shown that Hebb was right memories can reside in synaptic alterations theoretical work studying the brains mechanism in regard to memories has shown thatactivitydependent synaptic plasticity in the adult brain have a lot in common with those operating in development for wiring of the brainbasic molecular mechanisms that alter that alter synaptic effectiveness are similar to memory formation mechanisms in invertebratesProcedural Learningprocedural memories have characteristics that make them more ideal to study verses declarative memoriesnot easily forgottenformed along simple reflex pathways that link sensations to movement typically broken down into two categoriesnonassociative learningdescribes the change in behavioral response that occurs over time in response to a single type of stimulus habituationlearning to ignore a stimulus that lacks meaning due to its repeated presentationsensitizationlearning to intensify response to all stimuli even those that previously evoked little or no reactionassociative learningassociations are formed between events classical conditioningassociating a stimulus US that evokes a measurable response UR with a second stimulus CS that normally does not evoke this response but will evoke a response CR after being repeatedly paired with a UStiming requirementsUS and CS presented simultaneously or if CS precedes US by a short intervalinstrumental conditioningassociation of a response a motor act with a meaningful stimulus eg food reward timing is importantSimple Systems Invertebrate Models of Learningreasons why invertebrate animals offer important experimental advantagessmall NS large neurons identifiable neurons identifiable circuits simple geneticsnonassociative learning in Aplysia sea slughabituation of gill withdrawal reflexsensory info from siphonabdominal ganglionmotor neuronsinterneurons one motor neurons that receives direct input is L7 and this cell innervates muscle that produces the withdrawal effect where does habituation occurat the sensory nerve endings of the skin making them less sensitive to water squirtruled out because these endings continue to fire AP despite motor response decreaseat the muscle making it less sensitive to synaptic stimulation by motor neuronruled out because electrical stimulation of L7 always evoked the same amount of muscle contraction at the synapse between the sensory and motor neuron
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