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Canada (158,052)
Neuroscience (289)
NROC61H3 (42)
Chapter 24

Chapter 24 - Exam Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Le Boutillier

Chapter 24Memory Systems Learning The acquisition of new information or knowledge Memory The retention of learned informationDeclarative Memory Explicit MemoryResults from conscious effort Memory for facts and events that can be accessed for conscious recollection Easily formed and easily forgotten Involves medial temporal lobe and diencephalonNonDeclarative Memory Implicit MemoryResults from direct experienceRequires repetition and practice over a longer period of time less likely to be forgottenInvolves striatum cerebellum and amygdala respectively Three Types 1 Procedural Memories for skills habits and behaviours 2 Classical Conditioning3 Emotional Responses ShortTerm Memories Memories that are readily lost that last on the order of seconds to hours and are vulnerable to disruption STM can be erased by head trauma or electroconvulsive shock Memory Consolidation Process by which STM are selectively converted into a permanent memory consolidationMemory consolidation does not require STM as an intermediaryWorking Memory A temporary form of information storage that is limited in capacity and requires rehearsalSynesthesia Phenomenon in which sensory stimuli evoke sensations usually associated with different stimuli Amnesia The inability to learn and serious loss of memoryCan be caused by concussion chronic alcoholism encephalitis brain tumor and stroke Dissociated Amnesia Amnesia that is not accompanied by any other cognitive deficitRetrograde Amnesia Characterized by memory loss for events before the trauma you forgot things you already knewAnterograde Amnesia The inability to form new memories folling brain trauma Transient Global Amnesia A sudden onset of anterograde amnesia lasting only for a period of minutes to daysAfter attack there is a permanent memory gapEngram They physical representation or location of a memory or memory trace Lashley studied how performance on a task was affected by lesions on a rats cortexHebbs important message about the engram o 1 It could be widely distributed among the connections that link the cells of assembly o 2 It could involve the same neurons that are involved in sensation and perception Through Macaque monkey experiments it is evident that the inferotemporal cortex is both a visual area and an area involved in memory Hebbs Cell AssemblyMemory Storage 1 Cell with reciprocal connections bw neurons are activated by stimulus 2 Reverberating activity continues activation after the stimulus is removed 3 Hebbian modification strengthens the reciprocal connections between neurons that are active at the same time 4 The strengthened connections of the cell assembly contain the engram for the stimulus
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