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Chapter 25

Chapter 25 - Exam Notes

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Department
Neuroscience
Course
NROC61H3
Professor
Le Boutillier
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 25Molecular Mechanisms of Learning and Memory Declarative memories are easily formed and easily forgotten and may result from small modifications of synapses that are widely distributed Procedural learning can be divided into 2 categories o 1 Nonassociative learningo 2 Associative learningNonassociative Learning Describes the change in behavioural response that occurs over time in response to a single type of stimulus Two types of nonassociative learning o 1 Habituation Learning to ignore a stimulus that lacks meaningo 2 Sensitization Learning to intensify your response to all stimuli even ones that previously evoked little or no reactionAssociative Learning Forming associations between events Two types of associative learning o 1 Classical Conditioning Involves associating a stimulus that evokes a measurable response with a second stimulus that normally does not evoke this response First stimulusNormally evokes responseUSMeatSecond stimulusDoesnt normally evoke responseCSBellTraining consists of repeated pairing sound with presentation of meat Conditioning will occur if the US and CS are presented simultaneously or if CS precedes US by a short time o 2 Instrumental Conditioning Individual learns to associate response motor act with a meaningful stimulus a rewardfood Particular behaviour associated with particular consequence Invertebrate Models of Learning Advantages of Invertebrate NeuronsSmall nervous systems o Neurons a few as 1000 roughly 10 million times less than in human brainLarge neurons o Many inv Neurons are large making them easy to studyIdentifiable neurons o Neurons in invertebrates can be classified according to size location and electrophysiological properties and can therefore be identified from individual to individualIdentifiable circuits o Identifiable neurons make the same connections with one another from individual to individual Simple Genetics o Small genomes and rapid life cycles of some invertebrates make them ideal for studies of genetic and molecular biological basis of learning Nonassociative Learning in AplysiaIf jet of water is squirted onto a fleshy region called siphon the gill with retract gillwithdrawal reflexo Displays habituation after repeated presentation of water jet o Sensory information from the siphon travels along a nerve until it enters the abdominal gangliono Information is distributed to motor neurons and to interneurons o L7 is a motor neurons that receives direct monosynaptic sensory input from the siphon
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