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NROC61 - LeDoux article notes

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Le Boutillier

LeDouxHypothalamic theory of emotion CannonBard1 the hypothalamus evaluates the emotional relevance of env events2 the expression of emotional responses is mediated by dischage of impulses from hypothalamus to brainstem3 projections from hypothalamus to cortex mediate conscious experience of emotion Papez added anatomical circuits in forebrain to theory but retained central role of ascendingdescendingconnections from hypothalamusMacLean called forebrain emotional circuits the visceral brain and later the limbic system Weiskrantz proposed that amygdala lesions dissociate the affectivereinforcing properties of stimuli from their sensory representations in Pavlovian fear conditioning an emotionally neutral conditioned stimulus CS usu a tone is paired wan aversive unconditioned stimulus US usu a foot shockafter several pairings CS can elicit responses that usu occur in presence of danger such as defensive behaviour freezingescape responses autonomic NSresponses changes in blood pressureHR neuroendocrine responses release of hormones from pituitary and adrenal glands etcthe responses are not learnedvoluntary they are innate speciestypical responses to threats fear conditioning allows newlearned threats to automatically activate evolutionary tuned ways of respondingto danger sensory inputs to amygdala terminate mainly in lateral nucleus LA damage to LA interferes w fear conditioning auditory inputs to LA come from auditory thalamus and auditory cortex and fear condit to a simple auditoryCS can be mediated by either pathwayprojection to LA from auditory cortex is involved w a more complex auditory stimulus pattern single unit recordings show that the cortical pathway conditions slower over trials than the thalamic pathwayso plasticity in amygdala occurs initially through the thalamic pathwayhuman amygdala shows activity changes during conditioning and these correlate w activity in thalamus butnot cortex animals exhibit fear responses when returned to the chamber in which toneshock were paired or chamber inwhich shocks occur alone the chamber becomes a CSthis is contextual fear conditioning and reqs amygdalahippocampusareas of ventral hippocampus CA1subiculum project to basal B and accesory basal AB nuclei of amygdala which are also known as the basolateral and basomedial nucleidamage to these areas interferes w contextual conditioning so hippocampal projections to B and AB seem to be involved in contextual condit
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