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NROC61 - Medina article notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Le Boutillier

Medinamemories believed to be initially and temporarily stored in hippocampus and later transferred to cortex for persistent storage during consolidation but cortex may have crucial role in initial steps of memoryformation and hippocampus may not be disengaged from memory processing as early as has been proposed memory takes time to stabilizeconsolidate Ribot gradient memories might be processed over timeMullerPilzecker consolidationpostacquisition processes that stabilize memories newly formed memory undergoes a lingering process becoming stronger and resilient over time until it isinsensitive to disruptionnewly learned material consolidates over time memory trace is vulnerable to disruption only for a limitedperiod after trainingposttraining treatments can enhance memory storage the time course of consolidation of a memory trace varies depending on learning task parameters and on brainstructure being analyzed memory consolidation is not a single processdivided into 2 phases in vertebrates1 a protein and RNA synthesisindependent phase that lasts min to 13h STM2 a protein and RNA syntehsisdependent phase that lasts several hrs to days weeks or longer LTMproperty of LTMis its sensitivity to protein synthesis inhibitors during memory formation protein synthesis is reqd to transform newly learned info into stable synapticmodifications LTM reqs de novo protein synthesis around time of trainingduring first few hrs posttrainingcell assemblies work together to represent info in the brain no single memory center exists diff regions of brain are involved in memory processing dealing w difftypes of info of the new learned material so consolidation of memories is not a single unitary event depending on a single region of brainneed to look at temporal contributions of diff regions of brain involved in processing a learned experiencein diff species diff types of memory req multiple and distinct neural circuitsexistence of multiple memory systems consolidation of memories undergoes temporal changesconsolidation occurs over an extended period of timegraded retrograde amnesia caused by hippocampal damage can extend across several yrs in humansconsolidation of memories is gradual and protracted mammals many types of memories depend on hippocampal processing during first days to few weeks this hippocampusdirected process of stabilization eventually ends and memories become hippocampusindependentCellular and systems consolidation2 types of memory consolidation1 one is fast involves early molecularcellular events occuring early after training and lasting no morethan several hrs to a few days in particular brain regions engaged in acquisition and early processing of
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