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NROC61 - Squire article notes

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Squire Memory and Brain Systemsduring past 2 centuries study of LM has been central to philosophy psychology biologySociety of Neuroscience 1969 was founded before discovery of place cells LTP animal model of human memory impairment evidence of multiple memory systems Aplysia and Drosophila became productive simplesystems for studying memory development of neuroimaging technologymost of what is now understood about LM became known after the Society was establishedBrenda Miller 1957 described profound effects on memory of bilateral medial temporal lobe resection performed to relieve epilepsy on HMHM showed profound forgetfulness although his intellectual and perceptual functions were largely intact Findings from HM3 principles1 memory is a distinct cerebral function separable from other cognitive abilities2 medial temporal lobe is not needed for immediate memory HM did as well as others his age at retaining anumber or a visual image for a short time3 structures damaged in HM are not the ultimate repository of memory bc he retained his remote childhoodmemories only declarative memory was impaired in HM and other similar patients thus memory is not a unitary faculty of the mind but is composed of multiple systems that have diff operating principles and diff neuroanatomy major distinction is btwn the capacity for conscious declarative memory about facts and events and a collection of unconscious nondeclarative memory abilities such as skill learning and habit learningnondeclarative memory experience modifies behaviour but wo requiring any conscious memory content or eventhe experience that memory is being used nondeclarative memory is expressed through performancedeclarative memory is expressed through recollection as a way of modeling the external worldthe diff memory systems operate in parallel to support behaviourex an aversive childhood event such asbeing knocked down by a large dog might lead to stable declarative memory for the event itself as well aslonglasting fear of dogs a nondeclarative memory that is experienced as a personality trait rather than asa memoryanimal model of human memory impairment succeeded initially in the monkeyanatomical components of medial temporal lobe memory system that support declarative memory the hippocampus incl CA fields dentate gyrus subicular complex entorhinal perirhinal andparahippocampal corticies that make up much of parahippocampal gyrusbehavioural work in monkey reproduced impt features of human memory impairment emphasizing the key idea thatonly tasks of declarative memory should be expected to reveal an impairmentneuroanatomical studies identified the boundaries and the connectivity of impt
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