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Chapter 9

Chapter 9: The Eye

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

Sanchika K 011712 Sensory and Motor Chapter 9 The Eye Introduction y Light is electromagnetic energy that is emitted in the form of waves y The significance of vision is that about half of the human cerebral cortex is involved with analyzing the visual world y At the back of the eye is the retina which contain photoreceptors specialized to convert light energy into neural activity y The rest of the eye acts like a camera and adjusts to differences and form a picture on the retina y The eye has addition features like having the ability to track moving objects and the ability to keep its transparent surfaces cleanby tear and blinking y The retina is actually part of the brain y Each eye has two overlapping retinas o One specialized for low light levels that we encounter for dusk and dawn o And one specializes for higher light levels and detection of light y The retina is specialized to detect differences in the intensity of light falling on different parts of it y Axons of retinal neurons are bundled onto optic nerves which distribute visual information o Targets of the optic nerve areRegulating biological rhythms which are synchronized with the light and day cycleControl of eye position and optics y The first synaptic relay in the pathway that serves visual perception occurs in a cell group of the dorsal thalamus called the lateral geniculate nucleus o From the LGN visual information ascends to the cerebral cortex where it is interpreted and remembered Properties of Light Light y The visual system uses light to form images of the world around us y Light is the electromagnetic radiation that is visible to our eyes o It is described as a wave of energy y Electromagnetic radiation has o A wave lengthThe distance between successive peaks and troughs o FrequencyThe number of waves per second o AmplitudeThe difference between wave trough and peak y Radiation emitted at a high frequency has the highest energy content o Example gamma radiation y Radiation emitted at lower frequencies has less energy o Example radio waves
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