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Chapter 10

Chapter 10: The Central Visual System

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

Sanchika K 012412 Sensory and Motor Chapter 10 The Central Visual System Introduction y Since we have two eyes we actually have two visual images in our head and somehow they must be merged y The retina extracts information about different facets of the visual image y The pathway serving conscious visual perception includes the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and the primary visual cortex also called area17 VI or striate cortex o Information funneled through this geniculocortical pathway is processed in parallel by neurons specialized for the analysis of different stimulus attributes o The striate cortex then feeds this information to more than two dozen different extra striate cortical areas in the temporal and parietal lobes The Retinofugal Projectiony The neural pathway that leaves the eye beginning with the optic nerve is often referred to as the Retinofugal projectionThe Optic Nerve Optic Chiasm and Optic Tract y The ganglion cell axons fleeing the retina pass through three structures before they form synapses in the brain stem y In order the projection is the optic nerve optic chiasm and the optic tract y The optic nerves exit the left and right eyes at the optic disk y The optic nerves from both eyes combine to form the optic chiasm o Which lies at the base of the brain just anterior to where the pituitary gland dangles down y At the optic chiasm the axons originating in the nasal retinas cross from one side to the other o The crossing of a fiber bundle from one side of the brain to the other is called decussation y Following the optic chiasm the axons of the Retinofugal projections form the optic tract o Which runs just under the pia along the lateral surfaces of the diencephalonRight and Left Visual Hemifields y Objects appearing to the left of the midline are in the left visual hemifield and objects appearing to the right of the midline are in the right visual hemifield y The central portion of both visual hemifields is viewed by both retina o This region is called the binocular visual fieldObjects in the binocular region of the left visual field will be imaged in the nasal retina of the left eye and on the temporal retina of the right eye y All information of the left visual field hemifield is directed to the right side of the brain y Left visual hemifield is viewed by the right hemisphere and vice versa because the optic nerves cross in the optic chiasm
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