Textbook Notes (368,986)
Canada (162,320)
Neuroscience (289)
NROC64H3 (81)
Chapter 13

chapter 13

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Matthias Niemeier

INTRODUCTION The motor system consists of all our muscles and the neurons that control them The spinal cord contains certain motor programs for the generation of coordinated movements and that these programs are accessed executed and modified by descending commands from the brain Motor control is divided into two parts y The spinal cords command and control of coordinated muscle contractiony The brains command and control of the motor program in the spinal cord THE SOMATIC MOTOR SYSTEMThe muscles in the body can be described according to two broad categories y Smooth o Lines the digestive tract arteries and related structures o Innervated by nerve fibers from the ANS o Plays a role in peristalsis and the control of blood pressure and blood flow y Striatedthere are two types of striated muscles o Cardiac muscleis the heart musclecontracts rhythmicallyinnervations of the heart from the ANS functions to accelerate or slow down the heart rate o Skeletal muscleConstitutes the bulk of muscle mass in the bodyFunctions to move bones around jointsIs enclosed in a connective tissue sheath that forms tendonsContains hundreds of muscle fibers each innervated by a single axon branch from the CNS see Fig 133Derived from 33 paired somitesControlled by the somatic motor system y Under voluntary control and it generates behaviour Consider elbow joint see Fig 132 y Movement in the direction that closes the knife is called flexion o The muscles that cause flexion are called flexors Because they work together they are called synergists y Movement in the direction that opens the knife is called extension o The muscles that cause extension are called extensors y Flexors and extensors pull on a joint in opposite directions and are antagonists Muscles that are responsible for movements y of the trunk are called axial muscles o important for maintaining posture y of the shoulder elbow pelvis and knee are called the proximal muscles o important for locomotion y of the hands feet and digits are called the distal muscles o important for specialized manipulation of objects
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