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Chapter 9

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Sensory & Motor Systems 4/13/2012 Chapter 9 The Eye Overview: o Axons of retinal neurons are bundled into optic nerves, which distribute visual information (in the form of Action Potentials) to several brain structures that perform different functions. Some targets of the optic nerves are involved in regulating biological rhythms, which are synchronized with light-dark daily cycle; others are involved in the control of eye position and optics. The first synaptic relay in the pathway that serves visual perception occurs in a cell group of the dorsal thalamus called the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). - From the LGN, visual information ascends to the cerebral cortex where it is interpreted and remembered Properties of Light: Light can be: - Reflected: the bouncing of light rays off a surface. o The manner in which a ray of light is reflected depends on the angle at which it strikes the surface. A ray striking a mirror perpendicularly is reflected 180 degrees back upon itself, a ray striking the mirror at a 45 degree angle is reflect 90 degrees. - Absorbed: the transfer of light energy to a particle or surface. Some compounds absorb light energy only in a limited range of wavelengths, and then reflect the remaining wavelengths. - Refracted (how images are formed in the eye): the bending of light rays that can occur when they travel from one transparent medium to another. The bending of light occurs because the speed of light differs across different media. o The greater the differences between the speed of light in the two media, the greater the angle of refraction. o The transparent media in the eye bend light rays to form images on the retina. The Structure of the Eye: I. Gross Anatomy of the Eye: Pupil: the opening that allows light to enter the eye and reach the retina; it appears dark because of the light absorbing pigments in the retina. Iris (surrounds the pupil): pigmentation provides the eyes color. The iris contains two muscles that can vary the size of the pupil; one makes it smaller when it contracts, the other makes it larger. The iris and the pupil are both surrounded by the cornea. The cornea is continuous with the sclera, the white of the eye, which forms the tough wall of the eyeball. The eyeball sits in a bony eye socket in the skull, also called the eyes orbit. Inserted into the sclera are three pairs of extraocular muscles, which move the eyeball in the orbit. These muscles Sensory & Motor Systems 4/13/2012 Chapter 9 The Eye normally are not visible because they lie behind the conjunctiva, a membrane that folds back from the inside of the eyelids and attaches to the sclera. The optic nerve, carrying axons from the retina, exits the back of the eye, passes through the orbit and reaches the base of the brain near the pituitary gland. II. Cross-Sectional Anatomy of the Eye: The Cornea lacks blood vessels and is nourished by the fluid behind it, the aqueous humor. This view reveals the transparent lens located behind the iris. The lens is suspended by ligaments (called zonule fibers) attached to the ciliary muscles which are attached to the sclera and form a ring inside the eye. *** The lens also divides the interior of the eye into two compartments containing slightly different fluids - The aqueous humor is the watery fluid that lies between the cornea and the lens - The more viscous, jellylike vitreous humor lies between the lens and the retina; its pressure serves to keep the eyeball spherical. Image Formation by the Eye: Light rays that strike the curved surface of the cornea bend so that they converge on the back of the eye; those that enter the center of the eye pass straight to the retina. The distance from the refractive surface to the point where parallel light rays converge is called the focal distance. - Focal distance depends on the curvature of the cornea, the tighter the curve, the shorter the focal distance. Accommodation by the Lens: - Lens is involved in forming crisp images of objects located closer than about 9 m from the eye. o As objects approach, the light rays originating at a point can no longer be considered to be parallel. These rays diverge and greater refractive power is required to bring them into focus on the retina. This additional focusing power is provided by changing the shape of the lens a process known as accommodation. - During accommodation, the ciliary muscle contracts and swells in size, thereby making the area inside the muscle smaller and decreasing the tension in the suspensory ligaments. o The lens becomes rounder and thicker because of its natural elasticity. This rounding increases the curvature of the lens surfaces, thereby increasing their refractive power. Conversely, relaxation of the ciliary muscle increases the tension in the suspensory ligaments and the lens is stretched into a flatter shape. Visual Acuity: - The ability of the eye to distinguish two nearby points is called visual acuity. - Acuity depends on several factors, but especially on the spacing of photoreceptors in the retina and the precision of the eyes refraction.Sensory & Motor Systems 4/13/2012 Chapter 9 The Eye Box 9.2 -Eye Disorders: 1. Imbalance in the extraocular muscles ( known as strabismus) - Eyes will point in different directions. - In most cases is congenital - Treatment usually involves the use of prismatic glasses or surgery to the extraocular muscles to realign the eyes. - Without treatment, conflicting images are sent to the brain from the two eyes, degrading depth perception, and more importantly, cause the person to suppress input from one eye. o The dominant eye will be normal but the suppressed eye will become amblyopic, meaning that it has poor visual acuity. - If medical intervention is delayed until adulthood, the condition cannot be corrected. a. Type I: Esotropia: the directions of gaze of the two eyes cross and the person is said to be cross-eyed. b. Type II: Exotropia: the directions of gaze diverge and the person is said to be wall- eyed. 2. Cataract - Most common amongst adults - If it significantly impairs vision, surgery is usually required. o In a cataract operation, the lens is removed and replaced with an artificial plastic lens. The plastic lens wi
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