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NROC90H3 (3)

Neuroscience Anatomy Full Note

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George Cree

Neuroanatomy (Overview + Spinal Cord) 02/06/2009 19:17:00 Shared Characteristics of Vertebrate NSs • Pattern of neural development (order) • Bilateral symmetry • Cross connectivity (right controls left) • Longitudinal organization (structures posterior develop first) • Dorsal (back)/ventral organization of sensory/motor function ← Anatomical References • Dorsal vs. ventral • Rostral vs. caudal • Anterior vs. posterior (bipeds) • Medial (towards midline) vs. lateral (away from midline) • Ipsilateral (on same side) vs. contralateral (on opposite) ← Planes of section • Cornal or frontal (rostral from caudal, like bread) • Sagittal (seperates left from right) • Horizontal (dorsal from ventral) ← Divisions of the NS • CNS o Brain o Spinal cord • PNS o Autonomic NS  Afferent nerves (carry information to structure)  Efferent nerves (carry information away structure)  Parasympathetic  Sympathetic o Somatic NS  Afferent nerves  Efferent nerves • Nerve/Tract o Verves are bundles of axons within the CNS o Tracts are bundles of axons within the CNS ← CNS vs. PNS • CNS is the brain and spinal cord • PNS includes o Spinal nerves o Cranial nerves o Peripheral ganglia ← Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • Autonomic Nervous System o ANS is considered “Self-governing” o Innervations of internal organs  Receives sensory input from internal organs  Sends motor commands to internal organs o Two parts with opposing effects  Sympathetic  Active during emergencies  Fight-or-flight responses  Parasympathetic  Active when calm  Digestion, growth, energy storage • Somatic Nervous System o Spinal nerves innervating skin, joints, striated muscle  Mixed motor/sensory; split up before reaching cord o Dorsal root: sensory afferents enter cord  Somata outside cord, in dorsal root ganglia o Ventral root: motor efferent exit cord  Somata in ventral horn ← Neurulation • Embryo is a flat disc with 3 layers: o Endoderm: lining of internal organs o Mesoderm: bones, muscles o Ectoderm: Nervous system, skin • Neural plate folds, forming neural groove & neural tube • Part of neural plate migrates laterally, becoming neural crest o Neural crest: neurons of PNS with somata outside CNS o Walls of neural tube PNS ← Central Nervous System (CNS) Divisions from Neural Tube • Spinal Cord • Rhobencephalon “Hindbrain” o Myelencephalon “Cordbrain” o Metencephalon “Behindbrain” • Mesencephalon “Midbrain” • Prosencephalon “Forebrain” o Diencephalon o Telecephalon ← Spinal Cord • Four parts o Cervical o Thoraic o Lumbar o Sacral • Cauda Equina: “Horse tail nerves” at end • Cervical & Lumbar have enlargements o More neurons to innervate to further areas of body o Segments of body called “dermatomes” • Gross anatomy o Gray Matter (unmyelinated axons) o White matter o Central canal o Dorsal root (sensory to spinal) o Dorsal root ganglion o Ventral root (motor from Spinal) o Spinal Nerve • Fiber tracts o Ascending pathways:  Dorsal columns – touch and pressure  Spinocerebellar – posture and feedback  Spinothalamic – pain and temperature o Descending pathways  Corticospinal – fine motor control  Vestibulospinal – feedback for balance Neuroanatomy (CNS) 02/06/2009 19:17:00 ← Robencephalon (hindbrain) • Myelencephalon (cordbrain) o Medulla  Dorsal column nuclei (from dorsal column tract)  Reticular formation (regulating arousal, extend axons all NS)  Pyramidal decussation (“crossing over” of axons from one hemisphere to the other)  A
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