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Cognitive Science Full notes

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George Cree

Intro To Cognitive Neuroscience 1132010 Slide 1How does the brain support the mindSlide 2Prior to 1800s Psychology was subfield of Philosophy th Germans in the 19 Century regarded human mind as material mechanistic and amenable to scientific measurement and experimentation Allows for investigation o First German pioneers stimulus and perceptionEx How the brightness of a light relates to how one perceives the lightSlide 3Hermann von HelmholtzBackground in physiology and optics and physics o Drew a distinction between sensation and perceptionPerceptionrelies on poor data to make conclusions unconscious inferenceSlide 4Through experience develop inferred interpretations o Infer something from data and its automaticunconsciousUnconscious inferenceNecessary for brain to make these interpretationsSlide 5Wilhelm WundtFirst Official Psychologist ProfessorHis theories and experimental work are no longer highly regarded had a very narrow view of scientific psychology did not delve into higher mental processesFirst laboratoryTrained many individuals even those from USAEx Studies with reaction timeSlide 6American William James 18421910 o Armchair Psychologist Thinking observing and theorizing about how mental states relate to one another o Different from others because he considered psychology in a more modern sense thought about the whole rich experience of mental activity the steam of consciousnessA broader perspective o Remains highly influential to this day including his view of the mind as an adaptation functionalismSlide 7 th USA Psychology in the First Half of the 20 CenturyBehaviorism Favored introspection and speculation about the internal processes of the mind a black boxDerived from classical and operant conditioning studies in animalsThe processes within brain are unknown know whats going in and whats coming outtheir approach to psychologyGoal Map out stimulusresponse associations that determine human behaviorComplex behaviors would be considered a long change of stimulus response associations or conditioned reflexes that are predicted and controlledSlide 8 BF Skinner and JB WatsonMost of Behaviorism studies were on animals trainingBehaviorismcontent of psychology is behavior NOT THOUGHT and that its purpose is the PREDICTION AND CONTROL OF BEHAVIOR instead of GAINAING AN UNDERSTANDING OF MENTAL EVENTSSkinner Operant conditioning comes from how we respond to what is presented to us in our environment It can be thought of as learning due to the natural consequences of our actions Dispose of free will attribute nothing to itSkinner Vast majority of learning is due to what happens after behavior occursBehavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences ie behavior is emitted Not elicited and consequences that followlearningSchedules of ReinforcementContinuous reinforcementFixed ratio schedule every x times Rapid ResponseFixed interval schedule every x minutes o Animals learn to pace themselves so wait and when it gets closer start peckingVariable ratio scheduletho Similar to gambling on average rewarded every 10 time o Varies from time to time o Very rapid responding insanely pecking o If stop giving pellets takes a while for animals to tell that the game is overVariable interval schedule o Again very curious peckingSlide 10In the 1950s 1960s rejection of behaviorism and emergence of Cognitive Science and Cognitive PsychologyBehaviorism failed to explain much simple and complex behavior eg Chomskys critique of Skinners Verbal Behavior 1959 o Coke and the Soda MachineCoke doesnt come we respond more strongly ie beat on machine get mad etc even though no expected CokeSTRANGE and behaviorism fails to explain because it predicts that if no coke would weaken relationshipAlso the invention of the digital computer a machine with inputs algorithms rules etc that produce an outputhelps to open up the black box and led to cognitive psychologySlide 11
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