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NROB60H3 (157)
Chapter

CH2/LEC2

9 Pages
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Department
Neuroscience
Course Code
NROB60H3
Professor
Janelle Leboutillier

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NROB60: NEUROANATOMY
Lecture Two: The Structure of the Nervous System
Function Follows Structure
Early observations of structure led to interpretations
about function.
They went about doing this via ablation to
determine function by observing the deficits
that resulted as a result of removing a part of the
brain
Constantly refined as new data is available
Advances in technology and in knowledge
Genetic manipulation (knock outs, etc).
The size, shape, and convolutions of the brains differ;
however, there are a great number of similarities in terms
of structure (i.e. possession of cerebrum and cerebellum)
Special features of the Human central nervous
systemBasic arrangement of various structures
Differences in rat and human brain
Convolutions on human cerebrum surface
(called sulci and gyri)
- Lissencephalic (rat) and gyrencephalic
(human); the cortex is folded upon itself
Size of olfactory Bulb; the rodents possess a larger structure
because they depend on olfactory senses for survival.
Growth of cerebral hemisphere:
temporal, frontal, parietal, occipital
Dorsal view. You dont see
the cerebellum in the
human brain
Mid Saggital View. The
rat possesses many of the
same & larger structures
as humans do in the
internal /subcorticol
areas of the brain, but
lacks cortical matter.
www.notesolution.com
Lateral View. The
cerebellum appears to be
underneath our brains;
this is due to bipedalism;
GROSS ORGANIZATION
The rostral-most part is the
cerebrum
The cerebrum is the largest
part of the brain. Clearly split
down the middle into two
cerebral hemispheres,
result in a mid sagittal
section.
Generally, the right hemispheres
receives sensations from, and
controls the movement of the
left side of the body.
Movement is controlled contralaterally
Hemispheres are separated by
a deep sagittal fissure
There are other major fissures
(precentral gyrus, post central
gyrus, central sulcus, lateral
silvian fissure etc.)
Major fissures identify convolutions.
The key fissures can be used to
separate out key lobes and indicate
where lobes change.
If one was to pry apart the lateral
fissure; one would see the insula,
a part of cortex underlying
the cerebrum; island.
www.notesolution.com
The cerebellum(little brain) is found
behind the cerebrum.
It is smaller than the cerebrum,
Yet, it contains as many
neurons as booth cerebral
hemispheres combined.
Even though its is
smaller, small does not mean
fewer neurons
It is primarily a motor centre.
There are extensive
connections to the cerebrum
and the spinal cord - none of the
brain structures work independently.
The left side controls the left side,
while the right side controls the
right side. Ipsilateral.
Basal View of the Brain
www.notesolution.com

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Description
NROB60: NEUROANATOMY Lecture Two: The Structure of the Nervous System Function Follows Structure Early observations of structure led to interpretations about function. They went about doing this via ablation to determine function by observing the deficits that resulted as a result of removing a part of the brain Constantly refined as new data is available Advances in technology and in knowledge Genetic manipulation (knock outs, etc). The size, shape, and convolutions of the brains differ; however, there are a great number of similarities in terms of structure (i.e. possession of cerebrum and cerebellum) Special features of the Human central nervous system Basic arrangement of various structures Differences in rat and human brain Convolutions on human cerebrum surface (called sulci and gyri) - Lissencephalic (rat) and gyrencephalic (human); the cortex is folded upon itself Size of olfactory Bulb; the rodents possess a larger structure because they depend on olfactory senses for survival. Growth of cerebral hemisphere: temporal, frontal, parietal, occipital Dorsal view. You dont see the cerebellum in the human brain Mid Saggital View. The rat possesses many of the same & larger structures as humans do in the internal subcorticol areas of the brain, but lacks cortical matter. www.notesolution.com
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