Textbook Notes (363,452)
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Philosophy (210)
PHLB09H3 (97)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 VCH.dCVocx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Kelin Emmett

Chapter 1 Notes  Biomedical ethics is the study of the theoretical foundation of rights and obligations in health care relationships between various types of health care professionals and the patient or research participant and the practical moral issues arising within these relationships.  Morality is a formal system meant to generate co-operative behaviour and regulate interpersonal social relations through practical action guidance and conflict resolution.  Ethics is the systematic study of morality; the study of the concepts and theoretical justification involved in practical reasoning or reasoning meant to be applied to govern individual behaviour.  Meta-ethics is the identification, explication and critical evaluation of morality as a concept, abstracted from specific content or specific statements of behaviour.  Normative ethics is statements often in the form of principles or rules that tell people what to do or how to behave to live a moral life.  Applied ethics is the study of the theoretical and practical moral issues involved in specific contexts such as medicine, business or engineering.  Advance derivatives are written statements made while the patient is competent for use at a time when she is no longer competent, stating what medical treatment would/ would not be acceptable to her.  Passive euthanasia is the withdrawing or withholding of life-sustaining treatment to allow the patient to die from the underlying illness or injury.  Active euthanasia is direct actions that result in the patient’s death such as giving the patient a lethal injection.  Physician assisted suicide is the voluntary suicide by a patient committed with the assistance of her physician who typically provides the means to end the patient’s life.  Eugenics are controlled breeding practices used to improve the genetic quality of offspring  Allocation refers to the distribution of goods and services among alternative possibilities for their use.  Macro allocation is the social decisions made about the expenditure for the distribution of resources intended for health care; for example, how much money the government puts towards health care.  Micro allocation is decisions made by particular institutions or HCP’s concerning who will obtain available resources; for example, which patient will receive an available organ.  Commodification is the selling, buying or profiting from the sale of the human body, its tissue and or the information derived from research on it.  Selfish egotist is an exclusively self-interested person who promotes primarily short term interests  Negative rights refer to the rights to non-interference according to which others refrain from doing something to or interfering with an individual.  Positive rights ref
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