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Kelin Emmett

Chapter 1 Morality and Ethics 1.1 Introduction - Conflict of interests: individual has two or more interests/obligations, both legitimate but In conflict with one another - Biomedical ethics/bioethics: study of theoretical rights/obligations in health care relationships between health care professionals and patient; and practical moral issues within these relationships - Advance directives: written statements made while patient is competent for use when no longer competent stating what medical treatments would/not be acceptable - Passive euthanasia: refusal/withdrawal of life-saving treatment to allow patient death from underlying illness/injury - Active euthanasia: direct action causing death of patients by HPCs - Physician-assisted suicide: voluntary suicide by patient committed with assistance of physician providing means - Eugenics: controlled breeding practices to improve genetic quality of offspring - Allocation: distribution of goods/services among possibilities for use - Macroallocation: whether we have a right to receive health care and if so now much; social decisions about expenditure and distribution of resources for health care - Microallocation: rationing of health care services to individuals; deciding who will obtain available resources - Commodification: selling, buying, profiting from sale of human body, tissue, info derived from it 1.2 Morality and Ethics Terminology - Morality: formal system meant to generate co-operative behaviour and regulate interpersonal and social relations through practical action guidance and conflict resolution - Ethics: systematic study of morality; and of concepts and theoretical justification in practical reasoning or reasoning to govern individuals o Metaethics: identification, explication, critical evaluation of morality as concept abstract from specific content or statements of behaviour; can it exist, justified, what is its nature, sources o Normative ethics: statements/principles/rules telling people what to do or how to live morally: content of morality by evaluating justification o Applied ethics: study of practical and theoretical moral issues in specific contexts (medicine, business, engineering) The Purpose and Aim of Morality - Morality: formal system of rules obligating and prohibiting certain actions within society for: 1 Generating co-operative behaviour 2 Regulating interpersonal behaviour to achieve purpose - Practical action guidance and predictability of other's behaviour allows co-operation - Free to formulate and pursue own interests - Challenge is to balance self-interests with others’ - “Five Cs’ of Morality”: Co-operation, Compromise, and Compassion Conquer Conflict” - Selfish egoist: exclusively self-interested person promoting own short-term interests - Enlightened egoist: recognize as being one important person among many important people with conflicted interests and needing method of co-operative living Law and Morality - Law based on morality to educate citizens for productive and co-operative societies - Does not mean they are just/morally appropriate – need justification Human Rights - Moral rights o Justified by reasoning conscience regarding human needs and welfare-based interests o Basic Human Rights  Inherent  Necessary for individual/society to flourish  Universal regardless of gov’t/culture - Political rights & legal rights o Validated by laws which must be morally justified o Recognition by gov’t/legal proceedings o Can be revoked - Right entails duty/obligation to demand them - Negative rights: right to non-interference; identifies whose duty it is - Positive rights: welfare rights; rights to provision; unclear whose duty The Sources of Morality: Egoism, Relativism, and Objectivism - Which source for moral rules? 1. Subjectivism – no o Decide according to individual conscience because all individuals are right and no one is wrong o Unpredictable, no resolutions, judgements, resolutions 2. Moral or ethical relativism – no o Majority decides what is correct o No one true moral system for all people in all times/places o What about moral reformers? Belonging to several cultures? 3. Objectivism o Belief that certain things, esp. moral truths, exist independently of human knowledge or perception; at least one standard accepted by all people in all time/places o Cannot be based on an authority figure but on logical reasons a. Authority b. Reason/rationality - All cultures/social behaviour have fundamental agreement in moral values but differ on non- moral facts regarding their application Resolving Moral Dilemmas - Clarify contextual details, identify and fill in gaps in information - Verify own understanding of relevant terms/procedures - Verify information from objectively sources - Analyze arguments for each alternative - Check relevant code of ethics/appeal to recognized moral theory - Consider counter/examples to compare with present situation 1.3 Moral Theories Deontology: Kant and Ross - Deontology: duty-based moral theory in which behaviours are morally obligated/prohibited regardless of consequences achieved by not/doing them; motives are basis for judging whether actions are right/wrong - Immanuel Kant o Moral duties are categorical, universal, absolutely binding o Two duties:  Perfect duties: obligatory and never breached  Imperfect duties:
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