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Chapter 1

Notes on Readings Med 1,2,6 and Chapter 1,2.

8 Pages
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Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHLB81H3
Professor
William Seager

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Meditation on First Philosophy
Meditation 1
y Part 1: Descartes wanted to free himself from all the assumptions he was thought but
only when he have the leisure in retirement to do so.
y Part 2: He is careful to remove assumptions because if you can doubt anything, then
you would have not platform to stand on.
y Part 3: He use his senses to gain knowledge, except the senses may deceive him.
y Part 4: Senses may occasionally deceive him, but the atmosphere is so lifelike that
he believes it real.
y Part 5: Dreaming denies this argument because you are under an illusion that you
believe is real.
y Part 6: Things like colours and objects and bodies still exist in reality and in dreams.
y Part 7: Objects in the same category exist in dreams and reality.
y Part 8: Thought hard science may be different, basic logic such as arithmetic and
geometry are still the same in both reality and dreams.
y Part 9: What if objects and logic seem like perfect knowledge is an illusion created
by an evil Deity?
y Part 10: Descartes refrain from opinions that the evil Deity does not have the power
of God because the stronger the depiction the more powerful the evil Deity is and his
world is pretty convincing.
y Part 11: He is not in the wrong to believe that assumptions thats been centuries old
is the product of the evil Deity.
y Part 12: Descartes will now believe that everything does not exist because it is the
illusion of the evil Deity and that he will continue fighting to find any facts that
cannot be doubted
Mediation 2
y Part 1: Descartes will continue the fight to find certain fact because he is now too
deep in the hole.
y Part 2: Nothing is true and so is his senses.
y Part 3: The evil Deity cannot deceive Descartes that he is a thinking being otherwise
he would not have been thinking this. I think, therefore I am.
y Part 4: He does not clearly know who he is but he will use it as a bases.
y Part 5: He does have the time to question what is rational and what is a man. So he
just says that he perceive what the senses are telling him whether real or not.
y Part 6: He is perceiving which means that there is something that is coming in. The
answer is what is real is a thinking being.
y Part 7: He cannot fret on things that are unknown to him because he cannot
determine on whether it is real or not. Since he knows there is something certainly
real, than it is probable that other things are real too.
y Part 8: A thinking thing is a thing that doubts, perceives, understands, affirms,
denies, wills, refuse, and understands.
y Part 9: Why can these things belong to him because he thinking.
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y Part 10: Things that are away is not imaginable. Yet, he thinks of things that are
not true, but Descartes will leave it to another time.
y Part 11: However according to the senses things seem to be different like a candle
burning and after leaving it to be sometime, it is gone with only a pile of wax.
y Part 12: He believe the candle and the pile of wax to be the same thing because he is
using his intellect to do so.
y Part 13: But the senses says it is gone. The senses say that the people on the street
are moving clothing.
y Part 14: His intellect or common sense can also provide knowledge like the people
on the street or the candle.
y Part 15: If Descartes can reason that the candle is there, than why not other things?
y Part 16: Without intellect, senses cannot be perceived. Therefore, intellect alone
can create knowledge.
Meditation 6
y Part 1: Objects of pure mathematics is real because Descartes can conceive them
clearly and distinctly. God possesses all the power of things he can see and there is
nothing impossible to him. His imagination and his conscious he apply to material
things is sufficient reason that they exist.
y Part 2: You can apply your intellect and your imagination to a triangle, which has
three sides. But you can only apply your intellect to a chiligon, which has a
thousand sides, and not your imagination.
y Part 3: Even if he has no imagination, it does not affect the essence of his mind. He
will remain the same even though it looks different from the mind. Imagination turn
it self to the body, it conforms to the idea which it either itself is conceived or
apprehended by sense. Since there is no other obvious of explaining, it is probably
the body does exist.
y Part 4: He can perceive colours, sound, tastes, ect through the senses which have
reached the imagination. In order to examine this, he need to examine what
sense-perception is.
y Part 5: He will look at the things that is held true and examine the reason why he
doubt them or why he ought to believe.
y Part 6: My body can sense a lot things heat, pain, pleasure, and joy. I perceive
things that are not my, even though I did not give my consent. Sometimes they are
so vivid than the things I consent, that I believe that they are not from my mind.
y Part 7: Why does the body do things that have that is assume what it wants but have
no logical to what it wants? He feel that he should incline to accept these natural
things, since he accept the assumptions before writing the mediation.
y Part 8: Since, I now know myself better, I do not have to accept everything I see, nor
doubt everything I sense.
y Part 9: I know that all the things I conceive clear, can be produced by God, it is
sufficient that I can tell other apart from each other. On one hand I can see myself as
a thinking immaterial being, while on the other I can see myself as an unthinking
body.
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Chapter 1: A Dozen Problems in the Philosophy Mind
y The reader should get an understanding of the most important contemporary issues
and discussion and understanding of their historical background.
y The reader should know the correct way to approach these problems and even provide
answers to many of the questions pose.
y The reader should think about these issues for himself after reading the book.
y I write out of the conviction that the philosophy of mind is the most important subject
in contemporary philosophy and that the standard views are false.
y Philosophy of mind has become the centre topic in contemporary philosophy. The
centre of attention has now moved from language to mind. We will not fully
understand the functioning of language until we see how it grounded in our mental
abilities.
y The second reason is, we are now prepared to do more substantive, theoretical,
constructive philosophy.
y The third reason is how to give an account for ourselves as apparently conscious,
mindful free, rational, speaking, social, and political agents in a world that science
tells us consists entirely of mindless, meaningless, physical matter. What does it
mean to be human?
y The fourth reason why philosophy of mind is important is the invention of cognitive
science.
y Most people in the western world accept some form of dualism. Almost without
exception, the professional experts in the field accept some version of materialism.
y We have to know, how it came about historically that we have the questions we do
and what sort of answers our ancestors gave to these questions.
y Rene Descartes is a dualist. It is an idea that the world divides into two different
kinds of substances or entities that can exist in their own. They are mental and
physical substances, or sometimes called ³substance dualism³. The essence of mind
is consciousness, or as he called it ³thinking´; and the essence of body is
consciousness, or as he called it dimensions in physical space, or as he called it
³extension.´
y This theory divided up the territory between science and religion. Descartes defused
this conflict by giving the material world to scientists, and mental world to
theologians.
y Matter can be divided infinitely and the soul is undivided, cannot be destroyed.
y I cannot be mistaken about the existence of my own consciousness, hence I cannot be
mistaken about my own existence, because it is my essence to be a conscious being, a
mind.
y Bodies on the other hand, cannot be known directly but only indirectly by inferring
their existence and features from the contents of the mind.
y Descartes leave many questions unanswered in the follow questions.
Descartes Questions
y 1. The Mind-Body Problem. What exactly are the relations between the mental
and the physical, and in particular how can there be causal relations between them?
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Description
Meditation on First Philosophy Meditation 1 O Part 1: Descartes wanted to free himself from all the assumptions he was thought but only when he have the leisure in retirement to do so. O Part 2: He is careful to remove assumptions because if you can doubt anything, then you would have not platform to stand on. O Part 3: He use his senses to gain knowledge, except the senses may deceive him. O Part 4: Senses may occasionally deceive him, but the atmosphere is so lifelike that he believes it real. O Part 5: Dreaming denies this argument because you are under an illusion that you believe is real. O Part 6: Things like colours and objects and bodies still exist in reality and in dreams. O Part 7: Objects in the same category exist in dreams and reality. O Part 8: Thought hard science may be different, basic logic such as arithmetic and geometry are still the same in both reality and dreams. O Part 9: What if objects and logic seem like perfect knowledge is an illusion created by an evil Deity? O Part 10: Descartes refrain from opinions that the evil Deity does not have the power of God because the stronger the depiction the more powerful the evil Deity is and his world is pretty convincing. O Part 11: He is not in the wrong to believe that assumptions thats been centuries old is the product of the evil Deity. O Part 12: Descartes will now believe that everything does not exist because it is the illusion of the evil Deity and that he will continue fighting to find any facts that cannot be doubted Mediation 2 O Part 1: Descartes will continue the fight to find certain fact because he is now too deep in the hole. O Part 2: Nothing is true and so is his senses. O Part 3: The evil Deity cannot deceive Descartes that he is a thinking being otherwise he would not have been thinking this. I think, therefore I am. O Part 4: He does not clearly know who he is but he will use it as a bases. O Part 5: He does have the time to question what is rational and what is a man. So he just says that he perceive what the senses are telling him whether real or not. O Part 6: He is perceiving which means that there is something that is coming in. The answer is what is real is a thinking being. O Part 7: He cannot fret on things that are unknown to him because he cannot determine on whether it is real or not. Since he knows there is something certainly real, than it is probable that other things are real too. O Part 8: A thinking thing is a thing that doubts, perceives, understands, affirms, denies, wills, refuse, and understands. O Part 9: Why can these things belong to him because he thinking. www.notesolution.com
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