Chapter 1 Concepts of Motion.docx

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Physics and Astrophysics
Johann Bayer

Chapter 1 Concepts of Motion 1.1 Motion Diagrams  Motion is defined as the change of an object’s position with time.  The path along which an object moves, which might be a straight line or might be curved, is called a trajectory  Motion diagram shows an object’s position at several equally spaced instants of time. (1) If an object occupies only a single position in a motion diagram, then that object is at rest. (2) Images that are equally spaced indicate an object moving with constant speed. (3) An increasing distance between the images shows that the object is speeding up. (4) A decreasing distance between the images shows that the object is slowing down. 1.2 The Particle Model  Transitional motion is the motion of an object along a trajectory  An object that can be represented as a mass at a single point in space is called a particle. A particle has no size, no shape and no distinction between top and bottom.  The particle model of motion is a simplification in which we treat a moving object as if all of its mass were concentrated at a single point. 1.3 Position and Time  An arrow drawn from the origin to an object’s position is called the position vector of the object and it is given the symbol r.  A scalar quantity can be positive, negative or zero.  A vector quantity can have a magnitude as well as a direction. The magnitude of the vector can be positive or zero but it cannot be negative.  Displacement is the change in position. The displacement is a quantity that is independent of the coordinate system.  The displacement (change in r) of an object as it moves from an initial position to a final position
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