PHYA22 Chapter 26.doc

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Physics and Astrophysics
Brian Wilson

Chapter 26 Electric Charges and ForcesDeveloping a Charge ModelIf no forces are observed the original objects are neutralRubbing or charging two objects causes forces to be exerted between themAn object is charged if it passes the test by picking up paper chargedCharge ModeloFrictional forces rubbing add something called charge to an object or remove it from the object more vigorous rubbing produces a larger quantity of chargeoThere are two kinds of charge negative and positiveoTwo like charges exert repulsive forces on each other two opposite charges attract each otheroThe force between two charges is a longrange force the size of the force increases as the quantity of charge increase and decreases as the distance between the charges increasesoNeutral objects have an equal mixture of both positive and negative charge the rubbing process manages to separate the twooThere are two types of materials conductors and insulatorsoCharge can be transferred from one object to another by contactCharge can be transferred from one object to another but only when the objects touchDischarging removing charge from an object touching itConductors those materials through or along which charge easily moves metalInsulators those materials on or in which charges remain immobile glass and plasticBoth insulators and conductors can be charged they differ in the mobility of chargeCharged objects are attracted to neutral objects alsoChargeA glass rod that has been rubbed with silk is positively chargedA plastic rod rubbed with wool is negative27Protons have a mass of 167 x 10 kg31Electrons have a mass of 911 x 10 kgCharge like mass is an inherent property of electronsand protons Electrons and protons are the basic charges of ordinary matterCharge q has charge qNNe where N and N are the number of pepeprotons and electrons contained in the objectNeutral does not mean no charges but it means that there is no net chargeCharge Quantization the amount of charge on an object varies by small but discrete steps not continuouslyObjects acquire positive charge not by gaining protons but by losing electronsIonization the process of removing an electron from the electron cloud of an atomLaw of Conservation of Charge charge is neither created nor destroyed charge can be transferred from one object to another as electrons and ions move about but total amount of charge remains constantDrawing Charge DiagramsoDraw a simplified twodimensional cross section of the object
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