PHYA22 Chapter 24.doc

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Physics and Astrophysics
Brian Wilson

Chapter 24 Optical InstrumentsLenses in CombinationThe image of the first lens acts as the object for the second lensoA ray parallel to the optical axis refracts through the focal pointoA ray through the focal point refracts parallel to the optical axisoA ray through the center of the lens is undeviatedThe CameraCamera Lens always a combination of two or more individual lenses a converging lens and a somewhat weaker diverging lensEffective Focal Length can model a combination lens as a single lens with this focal lengthZoom Lens changes the effective focal length by varying the spacing between the converging lens and the diverging lensoFor objects more than 10 focal lengths from the lens the approximationfsf leads to s oObjects more than about 10 focal lengths away are essentially at infinity and the parallel rays from an infinitely distant object are focused one focal length behind the lensomssfs where m is much less than 1 because sfoThe size of the image is directly proportional to the focal length of the lensThe amount of light captured by the detector exposure is directly proportional to the time the shutter is openoTypical exposure times range from 11000 s for a sunny scene and 130 s for a dimly lit sceneoShutter Speed a very short exposure is
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