POLB80H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Perpetual Peace, Collective Security, Toleration


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLB80H3
Professor
M.Hoffmann- Universityof Toronto
Chapter
6

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CHAPTER 6: LIBERALISM
INTRODUCTION
Pg. 102 realism regarded as the dominant theory of international relations
- Liberalism has a strong claim to being the historic alternative
- In 1990s, liberalism appeared in Western state leaders proclaiming a new world order
- Stanley Hoffmann’s ‘international affairs have been the nemesis of liberalism... the essence of
liberalism is self-restraint, moderation, compromise and peace whereas the essence of
international politics is exactly the opposite; trouble peace, at best, or the state of war’
- Power politics is the product of ideas and ideas can change
- All citizens are equal, possess certain basic rights to education, access to free press, religious
toleration
- The right to own property
- Most effective system of economic exchange is market driven
- Sacrifice liberty of individual for the stability of the community
- The identity of the state determines its outward orientation
- All states are accorded to natural rights ‘right to non-intervention in domestic affairs’
- Both realist and liberals war is a recurring feature of the anarchic system
- Don’t define anarchy as cause of war
- Cause of war in imperialism, failure of balance of power, undemocratic regimes
Pg. 103 2 liberal direction: commitment to freedom in economic and social sphere minimalist role
for governing institutions, democratic political culture for basic freedom requires interventionist
institutions
- The intensification of global flows in trade, resources, people has weakened state’s capacity to
govern
CORE IDEAS IN LIBERAL THINKING ON INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Pg. 104 Kant, to achieve perpetual peace required transformation of consciousness, republican
constitutionalism, federal contract between states
If decisions to use force taken by people, conflict will be reduced “democratic peace
treaty’
- Liberal states tend to be wealthy, less to gain by engaging in conflicts
- 1989 Fukuyama’s ‘The End of History’ triumph of liberalism over all other ideologies
Pg. 105 many US presidents say liberal tradition believes a legal and institutional framework must be
established that includes states with different cultures and traditions
- Cobden’s belief that free trade would create more peaceful world order
- Peace not a natural condition but can be constructed
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