POLB50 Chapter 1 and chapter 2.docx

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Political Science
Jennifer Levine

Chapter 1: pg. 3-10 The study of Politics  Private or voluntary sectors – parts of society and the economy that function separately from the government  Public sector – is pretty much everything to do with the government, that’s not private  Government intervention normally cost money, which is gathered in the form of taxes  Government is defined as the set of institutions that make and enforce collective, public decisions for a society  Power is often defined in political science as the ability of one actor to impose its will on another, to get its own way, to do or get what it wants  We have four branches of government, the legislature, the executive, the bureaucracy and the judiciary  The legislative branch deals with laws, if a corporation wants a huge grant then the executive branch will be required, if the demand is for government services the bureaucratic branch will probably step in, and if a demand can be settled only by judicial interpretation it goes to our court  In some instances an action requires the combined action of any two of the four branches  “interest groups”, “pressure groups”, and advocacy groups” are all important to Canada. (these are groups people make to raise a point when they are dissatisfied with a current government decision  Politics is defined as the struggle for power and the management of conflict Chapter 2:pg. 27-46 institutional foundations and the evolution of the state  France and Britain colonized parts of this territory in the 1500s and 1600s, and interacted with the aboriginals in many different ways. (trading pelts, fighting over territory etc.)  After both Britain and France had become permanent settlements, Britain eventually took over the French after defeating them in the battle of the plains of abraham  This battle was part of the seven years war between france and Britain  After taking over, the british governors resisted the idea of imposing the English language and protestant religion on such a homogenous French-catholic population  This new colony combined british criminal law (common law) with French civil law  Britain passed the constitutional act of 1791  This gesture not only rewarded the loyalty of the French for not joining the American revolution, but the act divided the colony in two- Upper and Lower Canada, each with a governor, an executive council, an appointed legislative council and a locally elected assembly  Upper Canada was almost exclusively English  By 1791 all colonies had achieved representative government; that is a set of political institutions that included an elected legislative assembly  The colonies still realised that there was much left to be desired, so reformers demanded responsible government, in which advisers to the governor would be both chosen from and reflect the views of the elected assembly  This was a problem in the colonies however, because on many subjects Britain wanted the governor to do its will, not that of the local assembly  As a result, rebellions erupted in both lower and upper Canada, led by William lyon Mackenzie and Louis-joseph papineau  Lord Durham was called in to fix the problem, and as a result he created the durham report  In this report Durham outlined a divison of powers between local and imperial authorities such that in local matters the governor would follow the advice of colonial authorities, but in matters of imperial concern he would act as an agent of the british government  Durham also recommended that upper and lower Canada be united into a single colony of Canada, partly as one last attempt to assimilate the French.  The colonies were amalgamated by the 1840 Act of Union, but English did not remain the sole language of government operations for very long  When it became clear that assimilation of French-canadians would not be achieved, French was also recognized as an official language of the legislature  Shortly after achieving responsible government, the individual british north American colonies began thinking of uniting because of economic political and military factors  Confederation was looking good because this way it would allow for for greater autonomy to the two parts (Canada east & west), because while a central government would deal with problems that all the colonies had in common, provincial governments would handle distinctive internal matters on their own  Such a two-tier structure also appealed to the maritime provinces  The individual colonies also felt vulnerable m
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