Chapter 3. - Canadian Politics: Critical Approaches; Rand Dyck

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Political Science
Christopher Cochrane

Canadian Politics: Critical Approaches by Rand Dyck Chapter 3: Regionalism THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS Pg. 51 – Canadian political system characterized by regionalism - 1979 Task Force on Canadian Unity: Regional communities require an institutional framework if they are to become viable units which can express themselves Pg. 52 – regional demands articulated by provincial or territorial premier are harder to ignore - provinces and territories able to facilitate decision-making by handling local problems but would cause difficulty in Ottawa - regions defined by similarity of physical features and separated by topographic barriers - common environment leads to common political, social, cultural characteristic - regions are not fixed in political or geographic terms, fluid social creations that may change overtime (imagined communities) - dependency theory – emphasizes relations between different spatial entities - Ontario and Quebec seem to constitute a single central dominant core GEOGRAPHY PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS Pg. 53 – Canada second largest country - Distance problems complicated by divisions caused by physical barriers - Divided into 7 physiographic regions, 5 significant population - St. Lawrence Seaway improves Canada’s capacity to engage in international trade TRANSPORATAION AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM - Transportation and communications constructed across natural barriers - Railways formed crucial part of the Confederation Settlement of 1860s and 1870s - Macdonald brough Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) completion in 1885 Pg. 54 – CPR – advantage of private capital, monopolist, high rates and freight rates - 1919-23 Canadian National (CN) system – service to isolated parts of country, benefit to banthupt capitalist interest - 20 century obsessed with automobiles, provincial responsibility - Federal government ensure a highway across country Pg. 55 – 1997 PEI the Confederation Bridge - Air Canada – Mulroney’s first candidates for privatization - The government airline no longer served a public policy purpose - Federal government evacuated transportation industry when airport ownership to local non-profit authorities (1990s) - Oil, natural gas pipelines privately owned, building of pipeline need government approval Pg. 56 – Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) created 1932 to pressure more Canadian content - CBC television began in 1962 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION - People not spread uniformly - Density of Canadian population lowest in the world - 70% population near US borders - Core-periphery analysis Pg. 57 – Toronto-Ottawa-Montreal – core of Canada - 1990s, Quebec real close to separation ECONOMY Pg. 58 – regional economic difference with primary industries - Staples theory – (Harold Innis) – Canadian economic development relied on a succession of resource exports rather than manufacturing  The notion of dependence - Today, Canada rely primarily on exports of natural resources - Canada spend little on research and development (R&D) - Political attention focus on service sector THE ATLANTIC REGION - Reliance on fishing - 1990s, Atlantic fishery fell, too much employed, less fish - NFL great quantities of hydroelectric power - Not much prosperity because of large project by central Canadian or foreign firms Pg. 59 – state of underdevelopment - NFL’s offshore petroleum revenues given province a major boost QUEBEC - More diversified than Atlantic Region, more prosperous - Farming in St. Lawrence Lowlands, mining, forestry in Canadian Shield - Hydroelectricity most valuable resource - Production of pulp and paper Pg. 60 – still remains below national average in per capita income ONTARIO - Most diversified economy, among richest province - Powerful rivers for hydroelectricity - Manufacturing heartland of the country - 2 largest governments in country, Ottawa and Toronto THE PRAIRIE REGION - Agriculture – wheat, livestock - Alberta’s oil and natural gas production - Resource extraction on the Prairies more profitable venture - Less dependent on Ontario than before BRITISH COLUMBIA Pg. 61 – leading forestry province, mining, fishing industry - Asian immigration has expanded the service sector - China taking interest in their natural resource exports THE NORTH - Yukon, NWT, Nunavut - - gold rushes 1890s in Dawson City, 1930 in Yellowknife - All 3 depend heavily on federal government for financial support REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEMANDS Pg. 62 – natural resources fall within provincial jurisdiction but sought federal government support - Canadian Wheat Board – help Prairie farmers export more grain  Ottawa protected the Prairies - If Ottawa protected the Atlantic fishing, it will help the Atlantic provinces - The government regularly faces demands to assist a single industry or the economy of a single province or region HISTPROCAL REGIONAL CONFLICTS OW
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