POLB80 chapter 1

40 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Francis Wiafe- Amoako

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M01GOLD957710SEC01qxd1511121 PMPage 2The GlobalizationCHAPTER 1of InternationalRelationsNew York Philharmonic Orchestra and North Korean audience 2008M01GOLD957710SEC01qxd1511121 PMPage 3CHAPTER OUTLINEGlobalization International Relations and Daily LifeGlobalization InternationalInternational relations is a fascinating topic because it concerns peoples and culturesRelations and Daily Lifethroughout the world The scope and complexity of the interactions among theseCore Principlesgroups make international relations a challenging subject to master There is alwaysIR as a Field of Studymore to learn This book is only the beginning of the storyActors and InuencesNarrowly defined the field of international relations IRconcerns the relationState Actorsships among the worlds governments But these relationships cannot be understoodNonstate Actorsin isolation They are closely connected with other actors such as internationalLevels of Analysisorganizations multinational corporations and individuals with other social strucGlobalizationtures and processes including economics culture and domestic politics and withGlobal Geographygeographical and historical influences These elements together power the centraltrend in IR todayglobalizationThe Evolving InternationalIndeed two key events of recent years reflect globalization The terrorists whoSystemplotted and carried out the September 11 2001 attacks used the Internet to assist inThe Two World Wars19001950planning coordination and fundraising for the attacks And the global economicThe Cold War 19451990recession of 20082009 which began with a collapse of the US home mortgageThe PostCold War Eramarket spread quickly to other nations Highly integrated global financial markets19902010created a ripple effect across the globe that is still being felt today Thus two hallmarksof globalizationexpanding communications technology and integrated marketsfacilitated events that directly impacted our daily livesNot only largescale events inuence our daily lives The prospects for getting jobsafter graduation depend on the global economy and international economic competition Those jobs also are more likely than ever to entail international travel sales orcommunication And the rules of the world trading system affect the goods thatstudents consume every day such as electronics clothes and gasolineGlobalization has distinct positive impacts on our daily lives as well As technologyPODCASTadvances the world is shrinking year by year Better communication and transportationcapabilities constantly expand the ordinary persons contact with people products andideas from other countries Globalization is internationalizing usIn addition to feeling the inuence of globalization and international relations onour daily lives individual citizens can inuence the world as well Often internationalrelations is portrayed as a distant and abstract ritual conducted by a small group ofpeople such as presidents generals and diplomats Although leaders do play a majorrole in international affairs many other people participate College students and othercitizens participate in international relations every time they vote in an election or workon a political campaign buy a product or service traded on world markets and watchthe news The choices we make in our daily lives ultimately affect the world we live inThrough those choices every person makes a unique contribution however small tothe world of international relationsThe purpose of this book is to introduce the eld of IR to organize what is knownand theorized about IR and to convey the key concepts used by political scientists todiscuss relations among nations This rst chapter denes IR as a eld of study introduces the actors of interest and reviews the geographical and historical aspects of globalization within which IR occurs3M01GOLD957710SEC01qxd1511121 PMPage 44Chapter 1The Globalization of International RelationsCore PrinciplesTOUCHED BY WARThe field of IR reflects theworlds complexity and IRscholars use many theoriesconcepts and buzzwords intrying to describe and explainit Underneath this complexity however lie a few basicprinciples that shape the eldWe will lay out the range oftheories and approaches inChapters 2through 4 buthere we will present the mostcentral ideas as free fromjargon as possibleIR revolves around onekey problem How can agroupsuch as two or morecountriesserve its collectiveinterests when doing so requires its members to forgotheir individualinterests Forexample every country has aninterest in stopping globalwarming a goal that can beachieved only by many counIR affects our lives in many ways This womans boyfriend died in Iraq in 2006tries acting together Yet eachcountry also has an individual interest in burning fossil fuels to keep its economy going Similarly all members of amilitary alliance benet from the strength of the alliance but each member separately hasan interest in minimizing its own contributions in troops and money Individual nationscan advance their own shortterm interests by seizing territory militarily cheating ontrade agreements and refusing to contribute to international efforts such as peacekeepingor vaccination campaigns But if all nations acted this way they would nd themselvesworse off in a chaotic and vicious environment where mutual gains from cooperating onissues of security and trade would disappearThis problem of shared interests versus conicting interests among members of a groupgoes by various names in various contextsthe problem of collective action free ridingburden sharing the tragedy of the commons or the prisoners dilemma We will refer tothe general case as the collective goods problemthat is the problem of how to provide some1thing that benets all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to itIn general collective goods are easier to provide in small groups than in large ones Ina small group the cheating or free riding of one member is harder to conceal has agreater impact on the overall collective good and is easier to punish The advantage ofsmall groups helps explain the importance of the great power system in international secu2rity affairs and of the G20 Group of Twenty industrialized countries in economic matters1 Olson Mancur The Logic of Collective ActionHarvard 1971 19652At the G20 meeting in 2009 leaders of the major industrial countries announced that the G20 would replacethe G8 as the key group coordinating global nancial matters
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