POLB80 chapter3

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Political Science
Francis Wiafe- Amoako

M03GOLD957710SEC03qxd15111134 AMPage 84Liberal andCHAPTER 3Social TheoriesPakistani women wait for relief assistance 2010M03GOLD957710SEC03qxd15111134 AMPage 85CHAPTER OUTLINEThe Waning of WarThe Waning of War1In recent years a strong trend toward fewer and smaller wars has become evidentTomany Americans the world seems more warprone and violent than ever because theLiberal TheoriesKant and Peacecountry is at war on a scale not seen since Vietnam Yet for the world as a whole theLiberal Institutionalismcurrent period is one of the least warlike everInternational RegimesFirst consider the longterm trend In the rst half of the 20th century world warsCollective Securitykilled tens of millions and left whole continents in ruin In the second half of that cenThe Democratic Peacetury during the Cold War proxy wars killed millions and the world feared a nuclearwar that could have wiped out our species Now in the early 21st century wars likeSocial TheoriesIdentities and Ideasthose in Iraq and Sudan kill hundreds of thousands We fear terrorist attacks that couldMatterdestroy a city but not life on the planet Generation by generation the world hasPostmodernismmoved forward unevenly but inexorably from tens of millions killed to millions tohundreds of thousands This is still a large number and the impacts of war are stillMarxismcatastrophic Perhaps most important if we could understand and sustain this trendPeace Studiesmajor wars might fade away altogether though minor wars and terrorist attacks maycontinue to kill thousands of peopleGender TheoriesWhy Gender MattersEvents in the postCold War era continue this longterm trend toward smallerThe Masculinity ofwars The late 1990s and early 21st century saw the termination of lingering ColdRealismWarera conicts such as in Angola Northern Ireland Guatemala and southern SudanGender in War and Peacefollowing South Africa and Mozambique earlier in the 1990s Most of the wars thatWomen in IRflared up after the Cold War ended such as in Bosnia Kosovo Algeria RwandaDifference FeminismBurundi and Uganda have also come to an end This waning of war continues inversus Liberal Feminismrecent years Liberia and Ivory Coast established powersharing governments andPostmodern Feminismbrought in international peacekeepersfollowing in the path of Sierra Leone which in2003 held democratic elections In 2005 the Irish Republican Army nished permanently dismantling its weaponry India and Pakistan began their rst ceasere in adecade as did Burmas government and its largest rebel militiaTodays most serious conflicts consist mainly of skirmishing rather than alloutbattles The last battles between heavily armed forces on both sides with for example artillery tanks and airplanes were the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the 2008RussianGeorgian war both short and onesided affairs The last sustained interstatewar between Ethiopia and Eritrea ended in 2000 The last great power war withPODCASTgreat powers fighting each other ended more than 50 years agoIn 2010 war continued to abate in Iraq and worsen in Afghanistan Fightingcontinued in Sudan and ared in Yemen and Nigeria In Democratic Congo smallscalebut brutal ghting among various factions has ared since the devastating war thereended in 2003 UN peacekeepers arrived in 1999Ten years ago this textbooks list of wars in progress which appears on p154showed 20 wars and 8 more just ending in transitional ceaseres Today the list is downto 13 Similarly deaths caused by all types of war including actions such as shelling carbombs and airstrikes but not including indirect deaths from disease have fallen quitedramatically over the past 60 years Figure 31charts the decline in warrelated fatalitiessince the end of World War II While some years are higher or lower than othersthere is a consistent trend downward in this graph over recent decades suggesting anoverall movement toward less war in the international system1 Human Security Centre Human Security Report 2009 Shrinking Costs of WarHuman Security Centre 200985M03GOLD957710SEC03qxd15111134 AMPage 8686Chapter 3Liberal and Social TheoriesFIGURE 31BattleRelated Deaths in War 19462006800700600500400Deaths in thousands30020010001946195119561961196619711976198119861991199620012006Source Human Security Brief 2007 Simon Fraser UniversityLiberal TheoriesIf realism offers mostly dominance solutions to the collective goods problems of IR severalalternative theoretical approaches discussed in this chapter draw mostly on the reciprocityand identity principles recall Figure 21in Chapter 2 Among other common elementsthese approaches generally are more optimistic than realism about the prospects for peaceAlthough realists see the laws of power politics as relatively timeless and unchangingliberal theorists generally see the rules of IR as slowly incrementally evolving through timeand becoming more and more peaceful This evolution results primarily from the gradualbuildup of international organizations and mutual cooperation reciprocity and secondarily from changes in norms and public opinion identity The main theories discussed inthis and the following chapter all hold that we are not doomed to a world of recurring warbut can achieve a more peaceful world In addition this chapter reviews liberal theories ofdomestic politics and foreign policy making that unlike realism place importance on thedomestic and individual levels of analysis in explaining state behaviorKant and PeaceLiberal theories of IR try to explain how peace and cooperation are possible The German2philosopher Immanuel Kant 200 years ago gave three answersThe rst based on the2 Kant Immanuel Perpetual PeaceEdited by Lewis White Beck BobbsMerrill 1957 1795 Russett Bruceand John Oneal Triangulating Peace Democracy Interdependence and International OrganizationsNorton 2000
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