4 Pages
Unlock Document

Political Science
Sheldon Ungar

CHAPTER 2: THE EVOLUTION OF INTERNATIONA SOCIETY th By Baylis 5 edition INTRODUCTION: THE IDEA OF INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY Pg. 36 – empires – loosely or tightly organized, more or less centred and relatively formal or informal - International systems – organized on basis of the independence of individual units or their sovereignty - International society – applied to historical narrative and theoretical perspective - European state system principles are sovereignty and non-internvention  Made ‘family of nations’ to protect sovereignty - Theoretical perspective known as the English school – came from Hedley Bull, states accept no higher power than themselves, anarchy (no government) - Christian society (History) justify European seizure of land from indigenous people - Standard of civilization – 19 century imperialism and unequal treatment of nations Pg. 37 – human agency always played key role in determining rules, norms, institutions ANCIENT WORLDS - Contemporary international society – norms, rules, established practices, institutions governing the relations among sovereign states, exercise juridical independence - Sovereign equality: the equal status in international law of all states that characterizes early Islam, medieval Europe, supranational religious authority coexisted uneasy relationship  Can be international society because of non-violent acts, rules, shared values, normative assumptions - Growing economic complexity, diversity gave rise to trade and produce foreigner’s to travel or reside rights P.38 – Middle East, treaties contained clauses invoking divine sanctions upon treaty-breakers - then, the institution of diplomacy was invested with religious solemnity - Then 700 BCE – China, India, Greece  Fierce competition, conflict, cultural unity p.39 – city-states have high value on their independence which enable them to unite against Persian hegemony - Greeks developed international society - Amphyctionic Council – religious institution who concern to provide protection for shrines and enable Greeks to engage in rituals - Arbitration help settle inter-city disputes - Proxenia – an ancient version of the modern institution of the consulate - Ancient India applied international relations - Dharma – natural and eternal laws - Treaties in India sacred quality, breaking treaty will result to hostage - China before Chin dynasty (221BCE) international relation took place of cultural and intellectual richness and dynamism - Then ‘Warring States’ period warfare produce struggle for dominance and non by the Chin - Then relations with foreigners were possible only if acknowledgement by China’s higher status and emperor - Confucian theory – they’re the top of culturally determined hierarchy - Republican Rome sought legal means and required religious rituals before war be declared - Rome norms known as law of nations. - Power of Rome grew and needed to deal with other states of equality declined THE CHRISTIAN AND ISLAMIC ORDERS Pg. 40 – the Eastern, Byzantine Empire survived long and faced with Islam pressure - Whose force finally over threw it in 1453 - Byzantium became centre of Orthodox Christianity - Islamic world build intelligence network and policies of divide and rule - In West, Catholic Church important element in medieval Europe’s international society - The papal code and Islamic doctrine didn’t prevent trade or alliance with non-believers - The Church constructed legal order, arbitration, formal legal hearings and canon law - Church order lesser punishment – fines or public penance - Christian thinkers wonder how to reconcile war to defend Christian lands form enemies  Decision – declare proper authority, have right intention - The death of Muhammad, many Arab people came in the Middle East - The umma or community of believers overrode other social identity and to some extent practice through institution of caliphate Pg. 41 – summi and shia faith urge independence and ended caliphate - Turks established the Ottoman Empire dominated southern
More Less

Related notes for POLB80H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.