POLB80 CHAPTER 2.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLB80H3
Professor
Sheldon Ungar
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 2: THE EVOLUTION OF INTERNATIONA SOCIETY th By Baylis 5 edition INTRODUCTION: THE IDEA OF INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY Pg. 36 – empires – loosely or tightly organized, more or less centred and relatively formal or informal - International systems – organized on basis of the independence of individual units or their sovereignty - International society – applied to historical narrative and theoretical perspective - European state system principles are sovereignty and non-internvention  Made ‘family of nations’ to protect sovereignty - Theoretical perspective known as the English school – came from Hedley Bull, states accept no higher power than themselves, anarchy (no government) - Christian society (History) justify European seizure of land from indigenous people - Standard of civilization – 19 century imperialism and unequal treatment of nations Pg. 37 – human agency always played key role in determining rules, norms, institutions ANCIENT WORLDS - Contemporary international society – norms, rules, established practices, institutions governing the relations among sovereign states, exercise juridical independence - Sovereign equality: the equal status in international law of all states that characterizes early Islam, medieval Europe, supranational religious authority coexisted uneasy relationship  Can be international society because of non-violent acts, rules, shared values, normative assumptions - Growing economic complexity, diversity gave rise to trade and produce foreigner’s to travel or reside rights P.38 – Middle East, treaties contained clauses invoking divine sanctions upon treaty-breakers - then, the institution of diplomacy was invested with religious solemnity - Then 700 BCE – China, India, Greece  Fierce competition, conflict, cultural unity p.39 – city-states have high value on their independence which enable them to unite against Persian hegemony - Greeks developed international society - Amphyctionic Council – religious institution who concern to provide protection for shrines and enable Greeks to engage in rituals - Arbitration help settle inter-city disputes - Proxenia – an ancient version of the modern institution of the consulate - Ancient India applied international relations - Dharma – natural and eternal laws - Treaties in India sacred quality, breaking treaty will result to hostage - China before Chin dynasty (221BCE) international relation took place of cultural and intellectual richness and dynamism - Then ‘Warring States’ period warfare produce struggle for dominance and non by the Chin - Then relations with foreigners were possible only if acknowledgement by China’s higher status and emperor - Confucian theory – they’re the top of culturally determined hierarchy - Republican Rome sought legal means and required religious rituals before war be declared - Rome norms known as law of nations. - Power of Rome grew and needed to deal with other states of equality declined THE CHRISTIAN AND ISLAMIC ORDERS Pg. 40 – the Eastern, Byzantine Empire survived long and faced with Islam pressure - Whose force finally over threw it in 1453 - Byzantium became centre of Orthodox Christianity - Islamic world build intelligence network and policies of divide and rule - In West, Catholic Church important element in medieval Europe’s international society - The papal code and Islamic doctrine didn’t prevent trade or alliance with non-believers - The Church constructed legal order, arbitration, formal legal hearings and canon law - Church order lesser punishment – fines or public penance - Christian thinkers wonder how to reconcile war to defend Christian lands form enemies  Decision – declare proper authority, have right intention - The death of Muhammad, many Arab people came in the Middle East - The umma or community of believers overrode other social identity and to some extent practice through institution of caliphate Pg. 41 – summi and shia faith urge independence and ended caliphate - Turks established the Ottoman Empire dominated southern
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