CHAPTER 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
M.Hoffmann- Universityof Toronto

CHAPTER 2 THE EVOLUTION OF INTERNATIONA SOCIETY INTRODUCTION THE IDEA OF INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY Pg 36empiresloosely or tightly organized more or less centred and relatively formal or informalInternational systemsorganized on basis of the independence of individual units or their sovereigntyInternational societyapplied to historical narrative and theoretical perspectiveEuropean state system principles are sovereignty and noninternventionMade family of nations to protect sovereigntyTheoretical perspective known as the English schoolcame from Hedley Bull states accept no higher power than themselves anarchy no governmentChristian society History justify European seizure of land from indigenous peopleStandard of civilization19 century imperialism and unequal treatment of nations Pg 37human agency always played key role in determining rules norms institutions ANCIENT WORLDSContemporary international societynorms rules established practices institutions governing the relations among sovereign states exercise juridical independenceSovereign equality the equal status in international law of all states that characterizes early Islam medieval Europe supranational religious authority coexisted uneasy relationshipCan be international society because of nonviolent acts rules shared values normative assumptionsGrowing economic complexity diversity gave rise to trade and produce foreigners to travel or reside rights P38Middle East treaties contained clauses invoking divine sanctions upon treatybreakers then the institution of diplomacy was invested with religious solemnityThen 700 BCEChina India GreeceFierce competition conflict cultural unity p39citystates have high value on their independence which enable them to unite against Persian hegemonyGreeks developed international societyAmphyctionic Councilreligious institution who concern to provide protection for shrines and enable Greeks to engage in ritualsArbitration help settle intercity disputesProxeniaan ancient version of the modern institution of the consulateAncient India applied international relationsDharmanatural and eternal laws
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