Samuel P. Huntington.odt

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Political Science
Wiafe- Amaoko

Samuel P. Huntington Next pattern of conflict hypothesis: fundamental source of conflict in this new world wont be primarily ideological/primarily eco great divisions among humankind & dominating source of conflict will be cultural nation states will remain most powerful actors in world affairs but principal conflicts of global politics will occur btw nations & groups of diff civilizations clash of civilizations will dominate global politics fault lines btw civilizations will be battle lines of future Conflict btw civilizations will be the latest phase in evolution of conflict in modern world For century & half after emergence of modern intl system w/ Peace of Westphalia, conflicts of Western world were largely among princesemperors, absolute monarchs & constitutional monarchs attempting to expand their bureaucracies, their armies, their mercantilist eco strength &, most important, territory they ruled In process they created nation states, & beginning w/French Revolution principal lines of conflict were btw nations rather than princes In 1793, as R. R. Palmer put it, "wars of kings were over; wars of peoples had begun." th This 19 century pattern lasted until end of WWI Then, as result of the Russian Revolution & reaction against it, conflict of nations yielded to conflict of ideologies, among communism, fascism-Nazism & liberal democracy, & then btw communism & liberal democracy During Cold War, this latter conflict became embodied in struggle btw 2 superpowers, neither of which was nation state in classical European sense & each of which defined its identity in terms of its ideology These conflicts btw princes, nation states &and ideologies were primarily conflicts w/in Western civilization, "Western civil wars," as William Lind has labeled them th th This was as true of the Cold War as it was of world wars & earlier wars of 17 , 18 & 19 centuries W/ end of Cold War, intl politics moves out of its Western phase, & its centerpiece becomes interaxn btw West & non-Western civilizations & among non-Western civilizations In politics of civilizations, ppl & govts of non-Western civilizations no longer remain objects of history as targets of Western colonialism but join West as movers & shapers of history Nature of Civilizations Cold War divided into 1 , 2 & 3Wnd no longer relevant far more meaningful now to group countries not in terms of their poli/ eco sys/ in terms of their lvl of eco dev but rather in terms of their culture & civilization civilization= cultural entity (ex village, region, ethnic groups, nationalities, religious groups, all have distinct cultures at diff lvls of cultural heterogeneity butArabs, Chinese & Westerners are not part of any broader cultural entity constitute civilization so civilization = highest cultural grouping of ppl & broadest lvl of cultural identity ppl have short of that which distinguishes humans from other species defined both by common objective elements ex language, history, religion, customs, institutions, & by subjective self-identification of ppl Ppl have lvls of identity = resident of Rome may define himself w/ varying degrees of intensity as Roman, Italian, Catholic, Christian, European, Westerner Ppl can & do redefine their identities &, as result, composition boundaries of civilizations change may involve large # of ppl, as w/ China/very small # of ppl, exAnglophone Caribbean may include several nation states, as is case w/ Western, LatinAm &Arab civilizations,/only 1, as is case w/ Jap civilization obviously blend & overlap, & may include subcivilizations Western civilization has 2 major variants, European & NorthAm, & Islam has itsArab, Turkic & Malay subdivisions are nonetheless meaningful entities, & while lines btw them are seldom sharp, they are real are dynamic; rise & fall; divide & merge disappear & are buried in sands of time Westerners tend to think of nation states as principal actors in global affairs broader reaches of human history have been history of civilizations Why Civilizations will clash Civilization Identity will be increasingly imp in future, & world will be shaped in large measure by interaxns among 7/8 major civilizations These include Western, Confucian, Jap, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, LatinAm & possiblyAfrican civilization most important conflicts of future will occur along cultural fault lines separating these civilizations from one another Why? st 1 differences among civilizations are not only real; they are basic Civilizations are differentiated from each other by history, language, culture, tradition & religion ppl of diff civilization have diff views on relations btw God & man, individual & group, citizen & state, parents & children, husband & wife, & relative importance of rights & responsibilities, liberty & authority, equality & hierarchy far more fundamental than differences among poli ideologies & poli regimes Differences dont necessarily mean conflict, & conflict doesnt necessarily mean violence Over the centuries, diff among civilizations have generated most prolonged & most violent conflicts nd 2 world is becoming smaller place interaxns btw ppls of diff civilizations are these increasing interaxns intensify civilization consciousness & awareness of diff btw civilizations & commonalities w/in civilizations interaxns among ppl of diff civilizations civilization-consciousness of ppl that, in turn, invigorates diff & animosities stretching / thought to stretch back deep into history 3 rd processes of eco modernization & social change throughout world areseparating ppl from longstanding local identities also weaken nation state as source of identity In much of world religion has moved in to fill this gap, often in form of movets that are labeled "fundamentalist" Such movts are found in Western Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism & Hinduism, & in Islam In most countries & most religions ppl active in fundamentalist movts are young, college-educated, middle-class technicians, professionals & business persons "unsecularization of world," George Weigel has remarked, "is one of the dominant social facts of life in the late twentieth century." revival of religion provides basis for identity & commitment that transcends th national boundaries & unites civilizations 4 growth of civilization-consciousness is enhanced by dual role of West On 1 hand, West is at peak of power At same time, & perhaps as result, return to roots phenomenon is occurring among non-Western civilizations 1 hears references to trends toward turning inward & "Asianization" in Japan, end of Nehru legacy & "Hinduization" of India, failure of Western ideas of socialism &nationalism & hence "re-Islamization" of Middle East, & now debate over Westernization vs Russianization in Boris Yeltsin's country West at peak of its power confronts non-Wests that have desire, will resources to shape world in non-Western ways. In past, eli
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