March 12 readings.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POLB90H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar
Semester
Fall

Description
Trudeau, Pierre. 1971. Statement on Multiculturalism. Hansard (October 8, 1971).Available online at http : //www.canadahistory.com/sections/documents/P rimeministers/trudeau/docs onmulticulturalism.htm. • “for although there are two official languages, there is no official culture, nor does any ethnic group take precedence over any other. No citizen or group of citizens is other than Canadian, and all should be treated fairly” • the royal commission was guided by the belief that adherence to one’s ethnic group I influenced not so much by one’s origin or mother tongue as by ones sense of belonging to the group, and by what the commission calls the group’s “collective will to exist.” The govnt shares this belief • a policy of multiculturalism within a bilingual framework commends itself to the govnt as the most suitable • the individual’s freedom would be hampered if he were locked for life within a particular cultural compartment by the accident of birth or language o it is vital, therefore, that every Canadian, whatever his ethnic origin, be given a chance to learn at least one of the two languages in which his country conducts its official business and its politics. • Apolicy of multiculturalism within a bilingual framework commends itself to the government as the most suitable means of assuring the cultural freedom of Canadians. o Such a policy should help break down discriminatory attitudes and cultural jealousies o Avigorous policy of multiculturalism will help create this initial confidence  It can form the base of a society which is based on fair play for all • The govnt will support and encourage the various cultures and ethnic groups that give structure and vitality to our society. • they will be encouraged to share their cultural expression and values with other Canadians and so contribute to a richer life for us all. • In the last few months the government has taken steps to provide funds to support cultural educational centers for native people • In implementing a policy of multiculturalism within a bilingual framework, the govnt will provide support in 4 ways: o Resources permitting, the govn will seek to assist all Canadian culturual groups that have demonsrated a desire and effort to continue to develop a capacity to grow and contribute to Canada, and a clear needs for assistance, the small and weak groups no less than the strong and highly organized. o The govnt will assist members of all cultural groups to overcome cultural barriers to full participation in Canadian society o The govnt will promote creative encounters and interchange among all Canadian culturual groups in the interst of national unity o The govtn will continue to assist immigrants to acquire at least one of Canada’s official languages in order to become full participants in Canadian society. • The cultural diversity endows all Canadians with a great variety of human experience o The govnt regards this as a heritage to treasure and believes that Canada would be the poorer if we adopted assimilation programs forcing our citizens to forsake and forget the cultures they have brought to us. • The federal govnt hopes that the provinces will also respond positively to those recommendations which the commissioners addressed to them • Cultural diversity throughout the world is being eroded by the impact of industrial technology’, mass communications and urbanization. Many writers have discussed this as the creation of a mass society – in which mass produced culture and entertainment and large impersonal institutions threaten to denature and depersonalize man o One of man’s basic needs is a sense of belonging, and a good deal of contemporary social unrest – in all age groups – exists because this need has not been met. o Ethnic groups are certainly not the only way in which this need for belonging can be met, but they have been an important one in Canadian society. • 2 misconceptions often arise when cultural diversity: o cultural identity and national allegiance ▯ the sense of identity developed by each citizen as a unique individual is distinct from his national allegiance  there is no reason to suppose that a citizen who identifies himself wit pride as a chinese Canadian, who is deeply involved in the cultural activities of the chinese community in Canada, will be less loyal or concerned with Canadian matters than a citizen of Scottish origin who takes part in a bagpipe band.  Canadian identity will not be undermined by multiculturalism o Language and culture ▯  The distinction has never been clearly defined  The government is concerned with preserving human rights, developing Canadian identity, strengthening citizenship participation, reinforcing Canadian unity and encouraging cultural diversification within a bilingual framework. These objectives can best be served through a policy of multiculturalism composed of four main elements • The government of Canada will support all of Canada's cultures and will seek to assist, resources permitting, the development of those cultural groups which have demonstrated a desire and effort to continue to develop, a capacity to grow and contribute to Canada, as well as a clear need for assistance. • The special role of the government will be to support and encourage those cultures and cultural groups which Canadians wish to preserve  The Government will assist members of all cultural groups to overcome cultural barriers to full participation in Canadian society  The Government will promote creative encounters and interchange among all Canadian cultural groups in the interest of national unity.  he Government will continue to assist immigrants to acquire at least one of Canada's official languages in order to become full participants in Canadian society. Huntington, Samuel P. 1993. The Clash of Civilizations. ForeignA↵airs 72(Summer): 22-49 • The fundamental source of conflict in this new world will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic o The great division among human kind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural. o Nation states will remain the most powerful actors in world affairs, but the principle conflicts of global politics will occur between nations and groups of different civilization. • Conflict between civilizations will be the latest phase in the evolution of conflict in the modern world. • Conflicts between princes, nation states and ideologies were primarily conlflicts within western civilization, • During the cold war the world was divided into the first, second and third world • A civilization is a cultural entity o Villages, regions, ethnic groups, nationalities, religious groups, all have distinct cultures at different levels of cultural heterogeneity • Westeners tend to think of nation states as the principal actors in global affairs • Civilization identity will be increasingly important in the future, and the world will be shaped in large measure by the interactions among seve
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