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University of Toronto Scarborough
Political Science
Genevieve Dewar

OCTOBER 2 2012: CHAPTER 7  The countries of the north, absorbed by their own problems of security and economy, have turned their backs on one of the great moral challenges to face the globe  The end of the cold war o The confrontation between the untied states, western Europe, and their allies on the one hand, and the soviet union and its allies on the other – colored almost every aspect of public life. o An arms race squandered untold sums of money that might otherwise have been used to improve the human condition  FOREIGN POLICY DURING THE COLD WAR: GLOBALISM o The globalist persepective was to see almost all third world societies as pawns in an enormously complec chess game being fought by two master players – the soviet union and the united states – the stakes being the freedom of the people in the western alliance. In the globalist perspective, the regional issues were secondary and unimportant o The carter administration put human rights, rather than anticommunism, in the place of honor in its third world policy, the consequences being that the united states offended a number of its allies. The carter policy was less than completely successful. Although it gave hope to the victims and the oppressed in poor countries, it did not produce many concrete changes o The US government under president Regan downplayed the issue of human rights in the third world o The regionalist perspective was kept alive principally in the foreign policies of some of the united state’s allies. Once the british were reconciled to their withdrawal from empire, they generally supported the American position. Other allies, however, dissented somewhat. The Canadians and the Scandinavians tried to establish relationships with third world countries that promoted economic development. The germans and the Japanese cautiously began to create new bridges to poor countries. The French maintained unique connections to their former colonies, particularly in Africa, often supporting dictatorships for their own reasons. The impact of all these slightly different policies was much weaker that that of the American policy, however.  NEW AMERICAN HEGEMONY o This is not to imply that the united states can control world affairs; obviously it cannot. Among the examples of its inability to control affairs is the continuing conflict between arabs and Israelis in the middle east, the failure to achieve peace in Iraq, the development of nuclear technology in north korea and iran, and the genocide in Darfur o Because of the huge gap in power between the united states and all other countries, any account of the foreign policy of the rich countries toward the third world must emphasize the American role  THE WAR ON TERRORISM o It is the classic weapon of the weak o Terrorists cannot win wars or defeat established states o Globalism replaced regionalism, this time because of the war on terrorism  A CONSTRUCIVE FOREIGN POLICY o The war on terrorism has given new coherence to the foreign policy of the
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