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Political Science

Chapter 3 Some Historical Perspective:  Not uncommon to think that international border controls, and the passports and visas that accompany them, are permanent historical landmarks o Truth: Issuance of national passports constitutes on the historical radar and international controls on migration are mostly a product of the twentieth century.  Before World War 1: o States did not place constraints on the movement of people across borders. o War led the UK to impose a compulsory passport system in 1914 and was continued o US followed in 1918  International migration has become more and more narrowly defined in terms associated with the costs of war or poverty  Two features that are unique to the current international migration regime: o The current international regime:  Never have central political authorities had so much influence over the important life-choices of their resident populations o There is a curious inconsistency between the nature and extent of controls on human freedom and the dominant ideology of liberalism Migration in the Long Arc of History:  Idea of controlling entry and exit to one's territory goes back further than the twentieth century  Migration has been a part of life  Territory was not owned o It was shared or borrowed and ppl moved cyclically or periodically, following hunting, gathering and/or pastoral cycles  Early human history, nomadism was central to life, identity and culture, as well as defining the world historical map  Before the Industrial Revolution migration was essential to the settlement of early medieval Europe and an integral part of early modern life in Western Europe.  Dar-al-Islam (House of Islam): o Reinforced earlier traditions of free movement by stressing the essential unity of Islamic civilization and the artificiality of imposed territorial divisions o Migration in and out of Dar-al-Islam was facilitated by Islamic Law  Visitors from non-Muslim states were allowed to enter the House of Islam under an aman (safe conduct) obtained beforehand from any Muslim  Migration has been used to escape political and religious persecution  Most of human history, migration was understood as a fundamental need: o welcoming foreigners was understood as an act of civility  Creation of a modern passport system allowed states to monopolize and legitimize the authority to control human movement. o These develop
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