PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Optic Chiasm, Optic Nerve, Optic Disc

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Published on 26 Sep 2016
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
PSYA01
Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception
4.1 Sensation and Perception at a Glance
Eg. Necker Cube
The process of detecting and then translating the complexity of the world into meaningful
experiences occurs in two stages:
Sensation: process of detecting external events by sense organs and turning those stimuli into
neural signals
At the sensory level, the sound of someone’s voice is simply noise, and the sight of a
person is merely a combination of colour and motion
Perception: involves attending to, organizing, and interpreting stimuli that we sense
Includes recognizing the sounds as a human voice and understanding that certain colours,
shapes and motion together make up the image of a human being walking toward you
Transduction: when specialized receptors transform the physical energy of the outside world
into neural impulses
Internal Representation: neural impulses travel into the brain and influence the activity
of diff areas of the brain structures
Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies: the diff senses are separated in the brain
(Johannes Muller)
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PSYA01
Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception
Sensory Adaptation: reduction of activity in sensory receptors with repeated exposure to a
stimulus
Sensory adaption provides the benefit of allowing us to adjust to our surroundings and
shift our focus to other events that may be important
Subliminal Perception: perception below the threshold of conscious awareness
Gestalt Psychology: an approach to perception that emphasizes that "the whole is greater than
the sum of its parts"
Figure-Ground Principle: objects or 'figures' in our environment tend to stand out
against a background
Proximity and Similarity: tend to treat two items that are in close proximity to each
other as a group/viewing groups in uniform
Continuity (good continuation): perceptual rule that lines and other object tend to be
continuous, rather than abruptly changing direction
Closure: tendency to fill in gaps to complete a whole object
Common Fate: when objects group and move together in time
osharing fate
oEg. motorcycle: staying together/close/fate as one
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PSYA01
Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception
Top-Down Processing: when our perceptions are influenced by our expectations or by our prior
knowledge i.e.
Bottom-Up Processing: occurs when we perceive individual bits of sensory info and use them
to construct a more complex perception (more when things are unfamiliar: i.e. sounds into
message)
Perceptual Set: filter that influences what aspects of a scene we perceive or pay attention to
Divided Attention: paying attention to more than one stimulus or task at the same time
Selective Attention: involves focusing on one particular event/task
Inattentional Blindness: failure to notice clearly visible events or objects bc attention is
directed elsewhere
4.2 The Visual System
Wavelength: distance b/w peaks of a wave--differences in λ correspond to diff colours on the
electromagnetic spectrum
Long λ = reddish colours/ short λ = bluish colours
Amplitude: refers to height of the wave
Low amp = dim colours/ high amp = bright colours
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Document Summary

The process of detecting and then translating the complexity of the world into meaningful experiences occurs in two stages: Sensation: process of detecting external events by sense organs and turning those stimuli into neural signals. At the sensory level, the sound of someone"s voice is simply noise, and the sight of a person is merely a combination of colour and motion. Perception: involves attending to, organizing, and interpreting stimuli that we sense. Includes recognizing the sounds as a human voice and understanding that certain colours, shapes and motion together make up the image of a human being walking toward you. Transduction: when specialized receptors transform the physical energy of the outside world into neural impulses. Internal representation: neural impulses travel into the brain and influence the activity of diff areas of the brain structures. Doctrine of specific nerve energies: the diff senses are separated in the brain (johannes muller)

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