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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 M/C (with answers).pdf


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Chapter
2

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Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1)
The square root of the variance is called the
A)
simple deviation.
B)
standard deviation.
C)
D)
range.
E)
median variance.
1)
2)
The systematic selection of participants in research studies to ensure that the average values of
important subject variables are similar across groups is called
A)
matching.
B)
counterbalancing.
C)
randomization.
D)
blocking.
E)
sampling.
2)
3)
When there are some extreme sources in a set of data, the most representative measure of central
tendency
A)
range.
B)
mean.
C)
median.
D)
correlation.
E)
standard deviation.
3)
4)
A measure of central tendency is used to
A)
determine the highest and lowest scores in a set of observations.
B)
compare the differences in two sets of observations.
C)
identify each observation in a set of observations.
D)
calculate the amount of variability around the mean of a set of observations.
E)
characterize or represent of many observations.
4)
5)
First step in calculating the standard deviation of a set of scores is to calculate the __________ of
those scores.
A)
mode
B)
range
C)
variance
D)
median
E)
mean
5)
1

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6)
The variable that is measured in an experiment is called the __________ variable.
A)
causal
B)
confounding
C)
independent
D)
relational
E)
dependent
6)
7)
In cross
-
cultural research, culture is considered a(n) __________ variable, which is similar to a
__________ variable.
A)
dependent; subject
B)
treatment; independent
C)
experimental; dependent
D)
subject; confounding
E)
independent; biological
7)
8)
Inferential statistics are useful in telling researchers that the results of their experiments are
A)
important.
B)
due to chance or not.
C)
correlated with the results from other research.
D)
affected by the confounding of variables or not.
E)
relevant to understanding some aspect of everyday life.
8)
9)
Confounding of variables
A)
is not manipulated by the experimenter.
B)
is beyond the experimenter's ability to control.
C)
has the same effect as a control group.
D)
only rarely affects participants' performance in an experiment.
E)
is manipulated by the experimenter.
9)
10)
The degree to which two or more independent observers agree in their ratings of a participant's
behavior is called interrater
A)
reliability.
B)
consistency.
C)
agreement.
D)
validity.
E)
control.
10)
2

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11)
If we wanted to learn about the relation between people's personalities and how much money they
make, we would most likely conduct a(n)
A)
correlational study.
B)
observational study.
C)
experiment.
D)
single
-
blind study.
E)
case study.
11)
12)
The first step of the scientific method specifies that a researcher
A)
collect the data for the study.
B)
read the relevant literature on related experiments.
C)
determine the subjects he or she would like to use in the experiment.
D)
formulate hypothetical causal relations among the variables.
E)
design the study.
12)
13)
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A)
Participants in a study usually react passively to the independent variables.
B)
Participants generally do not try to interpret what is going on in the experimental situation.
C)
One way to eliminate order effects in a study is to use counterbalancing.
D)
Confounding variables may be present in a study after it begins.
E)
Random assignment assures that all participants are equally likely to be influenced by the
independent variables.
13)
14)
If an experimental procedure produces consistent results under consistent conditions, then the
procedure is said to be
A)
valid.
B)
standardized.
C)
counterbalanced.
D)
operationally defined.
E)
reliable.
14)
15)
The major problem with the flawed "predator recognition" experiment described in the textbook
involved the
A)
failure to assign subjects to groups in a random order.
B)
experimenter's original hypothesis.
C)
location of the experiment.
D)
failure to provide an operational definition for the dependent variable.
E)
order in which stimuli were presented to subjects.
15)
3
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