Textbook Notes (280,000)
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Psychology (10,000)
PSYA01H3 (1,000)
Chapter 1

PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Information Processing, Wilder Penfield, Humanistic Psychology

Course Code
Steve Joordens

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Chapter 1
Psychology: scientific study of the causes of behaviour๎€focus turned from mind to behaviour
Casual event: An event that causes another event (including behaviour) to occur
๎€1st describe it: categorize & measure behaviour; therefore, different psychologist observing same phenomena
๎€2nd discover the causes of behaviour we observe: the events responsible for a behaviourโ€™s occurrence
๎€different categories of casual events---โ€œlevels of explanationโ€
Fields of Psychology
โ€ขResearch psychologist differ: in the type of behaviour they investigate and the casual events they analyze
โ€ขEx. memory in physiological events and other will explain on environmental events
Physiological: examines physiology of behaviour
๎€observing non-human animals including learning, memory, sensory processes, emotional behaviour, motivation, sexual
behaviour, and sleep
Comparative: studies the behaviour of members of a variety of species in an attempt to explain behaviour in terms of
evolutionary adaptation to the environment
๎€inherited behavioural patterns ex. Mating, predation, aggression, defensive, and parental
Behaviour analysis: studies the effect of the environmental events on behaviour
๎€learning and motivation
๎€important cause of a specific behaviour is the relationship btwn behaviour & consequent event
๎€Ex. Behaviours that produce pleasant outcomes tend be to repeated
Behaviour genetics: studies role of genetics in behaviour
๎€role of genetics in behaviour --examining similarities in physical and behavioural characteristics of blood relatives,
whose genes are more similar than those of unrelated individuals
๎€breeding experiments: what aspects of behaviour can be transmitted to an animalโ€™s offspring

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Cognitive: mental processes and complex behavioursโ€”perception, attention, learning, and memory, verbal behaviour,
concept formation, and problem solving
๎€events that cause behaviour consists of functions of human brain that occur in response to environmental events
๎€imaginery, attention, and mechanisms of language
Cognitive neuroscience: closely allied with cognitive psychology and physiological psychology.
๎€discover the particular brain mechanisms responsible for cognitive processes
๎€study behaviour of ppl whose brains have been damaged by natural causes: strokes, tumours
Developmental: study of physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development, especially of children.
๎€studies changes in behavioural, perceptual, and cognitive capacities of organisms as a function of age and experience
Social: study of effects of ppl have on each otherโ€™s behaviour
๎€perception (of oneself as well as others)
๎€cause and effect relations in human interactions, attitudes and opinions, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics,
and emotional behaviours, including aggression and sexual behaviour
Personality: attempts to categorize and understand the causes of individual differences in patterns of behaviour
๎€individual differences in temperament and patterns of behaviour
๎€personโ€™s history, both genetic and environmental
Evolutionary: explains behavioural in terms of adaptive advantages that specific behaviours provided during the evolution
of a species. Evolutionary psychologists use natural selection as a guiding principle.
๎€explain cognitive, social, and personality aspects by looking at adaptive significance during evolution of modern species
Cross-cultural: studies impacts of culture on behaviour
Clinical: study of psychological disorders and problems of adjustment
Applied Areas of Psychology
TypeArea of application Employment setting
Clincial neuropsychologistsIdentification and treatment of the Hospitals, in association with

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behavioural consequences of nervous
system disorders and injuries
specialists who treat diseases of the
nervous system
Clinical psychologistsIdentification, assessment, and
treatment of psychological disorders
Private practice and hospitals
Community psychologists Welfare of individuals in the social
system, especially those who are
Community organizations
Consumer psychologistsMotivation, perception, learning, and
purchasing behaviour of individuals in
the market place
Corporations and advertising agencies
Engineering psychologists and
Perceptual and cognitive factors in the
use of machinery
Corporations and engineering agencies
Forensic psychologistsBehaviour as it relates to the legal and
justice system
Private law firms and public agencies
in the justice system
Health psychologistsBehaviour that affects health and life
Hospitals, government agencies, and
Organizational psychologistsBehaviour in industrial work processesCorporations and government agencies
School psychologistsBehavioural issues of students in the
school setting
Educational agencies and institutions
Growth of Psychology as a Science
๎€Started in late 19th century in Germany
Animism: belief that all animals and all moving objects possess spirits providing their motive force
๎€movements of own bodies were controlled by minds or spirits, thus the sun, moon, wind, and tides were also animated
๎€we are conscious of our own existence: our conscious minds controls our behaviour
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
๎€Father of modern philosophy
๎€viewed human body as a machine affected by natural causes and producing natural effects
๎€what set humans apart was their possession of a mind: it was not pt of natural world, and therefore it obeyed diff laws
๎€believed that minds had a free will: ability to make decisions and choose btwn good & evil: fit catholic faith
Reflexes: automatic response to a stimulus
Dualism: all reality can be divided into two distinct entities: mind and matter
pineal body: interaction btwn mind and body, pineal body tilted in a particular direction causing fluid to flow from the
brain into proper set of nerves. This flow of fluid caused the muscles to inflate and move
John Locke (1632-1704)
Empiricism: pursuit of truth through observation and experience
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