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Chapter notes

Course Code
Steve Joordens

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Chapter 4
Donald Webb's major contribution were his understanding of the relation between the
individual nerve cell, larger network, and higher processes
Module: a cluster of nerve cells that communicate with each other
Nerves are bundles of fibres with which the central nervous system communicates with the
rest of the body (CNS communicates with the rest of the body through the nerves)
Brian stem must have pons, which are involved in controlling some stages of sleep. It
CANNOT however, have a thalamus
Cerebellum controls and coordinates walking and running
Cerebrospinal fluid protects the brain and spinal cord from the bones that surround them
The surface of the cerebral hemispheres is covered by the cerebral cortex (Cerebral cortex is
on he surface of the cerebral hemispheres)
Cerebral cortex does NOT function in the formation of emotions
Myelin covering of the neurons is what gives the white colour (Myelin = white colour or
One function of the soma is to receive messages from the neurons
Axon carries message towards terminal buttons (message is carried to the terminal buttons
from the axon)
Synapses can occur both on the smooth surface and the spine of dendrites
Neurotransmitters are NOT released from terminal buttons of dendrites (released from
MS (multiple sclerosis) involves the deterioration of the myelin sheaths
Axon is resting, the outside is resting at +70 millivolts with respect to it
Actively pumping ions out, must be a transporter
Inside of axon is more negatively charged than the outside because the AXON produces more
negative ions and fewer positively charged ions
Na+ comes in, and K+ goes out of axons
Motor neurons synapse with muscle cells and regulate their contractions
Rate of firing of the neuron controlling the muscle determines the strength of the muscular
Inhibitory synapses prevent the firing of a postsynaptic neuron, whereas excitatory synapses
ensure the firing of a postsynaptic neuron.
The type of neuron relaying messages to the spinal cord is called a sensory neuron
Neurotransmitter receptor is the protein molecule located in the membrane of the
postsynaptic neuron that enables it to be excited or inhibited
Most of the ion channels in the excitatory synapse allow for sodium to enter the neuron
Most of the ion channels in the inhibitory synapse allow for potassium to leave the neuron
Most synapses, effect of neurotransmitters are terminated by reuptake, which is where the
neurotransmitters are retrieved by the terminal buttons
Drug increases the rate of reuptake, the effect of the neurotransmitter is diminished.
Retarding the rate of reuptake, the effect of the neurotransmitter is prolonged
Block the postsynaptic receptor, diminish the effect of the neurotransmitter
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