PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Dependent And Independent Variables, Naturalistic Observation, Scientific Method

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Published on 31 Oct 2010
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UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
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of an individual’s behaviour during the course of clinical treatment or
diagnosis.
- most likely does not remain in the background. Is ethically constrained
to engage in activities designed to benefit the patient. Cannot manipulate
treatments for observations.
- in some cases, psychologists do interfere with a situation in a natural or
clinical setting. E.g. survey study: a study of people’s responses to
standardized questions.
DESIGNING AN EXPERIMENT
- variables: anything vary in value (differ in amount). E.g. happiness,
Temperature…etc
- manipulate: setting the values of an independent variable in an
experiment to see whether the value of another variable is affected.
- experimental group: a group of participants in an experiment, the
members of which are exposed to a particular value of the independent
variable which as been manipulated by the researcher.
- control group: comparison group used in an experiment, the members of
which are exposed to the naturally occurring or zero value of the
independent variable.
- independent variable: variable that’s manipulated in an experiment as a
means of determining cause-and-effect relations.
- dependent variable: variable that is measured in an experiment.
- nominal fallacy: the false belief that one has explained the causes of a
phenomenon by identifying and naming it. E.g. believing that 1 has
explained lazy behaviour by attributing it to “laziness”
Operational Definitions
- operational definition: the definition of a variable in terms of the
operations the researcher performs to measure or manipulate it.
- validity: the degree to which the operational definition of a variable
accurately reflects the variable it is designed to measure or manipulate
Control of Independent Variables
- When conducting an experiment, the researcher must manipulate only the
independent variable.
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- confounding of variables: inadvertent simultaneous manipulation of
more than 1 variable. The results of an experiment involving confounded
variables permit no valid conclusions about cause and effect.
- counterbalancing: a systematic variation of conditions in an experiment
such as the order of presentation of stimuli, so that different participants
encounter them in different orders; prevents confounding of independent
variables with time-dependent processes such as habituation.
PERFORMING AN EXPERIMENT
- decide how to best conduct it (what participants, what instructions…etc)
Reliability of Measurements
- reliability: the repeatability of a measurement; the likelihood that if the
measurement was made again it would yield the same value.
- interrater reliability: the degree to which 2 or more independent
observers agree in their ratings of another organisms behaviour. (higher =
better)
Selecting the Participants
- random assignment: procedure in which each participant has an equally
likely chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups of an
experiment.
- researcher must continue to attend to the possibility of confounded
variables even after the experiment is under way.
Expectancy Effects
- observation can change that which you observe
- if research participants figure out the researcher’s hypothesis, they will
sometimes behave as if the hypothesis is true (even if its not).
- single blind experiments:
- placebo: an inert substance that cannot be distinguished in
appearance from a real medication; used as a control substance in a single-
blind or double blind experiment.
- single blind study: an experiment in which the researcher but
not the participant knows the value of the independent variable.
- double blind experiments:
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Www. notesolution. com of an individual"s behaviour during the course of clinical treatment or diagnosis. Most likely does not remain in the background. Is ethically constrained to engage in activities designed to benefit the patient. In some cases, psychologists do interfere with a situation in a natural or clinical setting. E. g. survey study: a study of people"s responses to standardized questions. Variables: anything vary in value (differ in amount). Manipulate: setting the values of an independent variable in an experiment to see whether the value of another variable is affected. Experimental group: a group of participants in an experiment, the members of which are exposed to a particular value of the independent variable which as been manipulated by the researcher. Control group: comparison group used in an experiment, the members of which are exposed to the naturally occurring or zero value of the independent variable. Independent variable: variable that"s manipulated in an experiment as a means of determining cause-and-effect relations.