PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Factor Analysis, Theory Of Multiple Intelligences

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Published on 12 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Midterm Notes Chapter 11-Intelligence and Thinking
Intelligence: person’s ability to learn and remember info, recognize concepts + relations, apply
info to own behaviour in adaptive way
Any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgements
Study of Intelligence approaches:
Differential Approach: tests that ID and measure indiv. diff. in people’s knowledge and ability
to solve problems
Developmental Approach: the way children learn to perceive, manipulate,+ think about world
-Most influential proponent Jean Piaget
Information Processing Approach: skills people use to think and to solve problems
-Robert Sternberg’s influential theory of successful intelligence
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory
Spearman –person’s performance on test determined by 2 factors, g & s
G Factor factor of intelligence common to all intellectual tasks (i.e. apprehension of
experience, eduction of relations/correlates)
S Factor factor of intelligence specific to a particular task
Solving analogies requires all three G factor abilities
-Apprehension of experience (reading and understanding the words in the analogy)
-Eduction of relations (ability to perceive the relation)
-Eduction of Correlates (apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar one)
Correlations among tests of particular intelligences provided empirical evidence for this theory
-If people are given 10 different tasks and each measures separate independent ability, the scores
will be unrelated between tests, correlations will be about 0
-If the tests measure abilities that are different manifestations of a single trait, correlation=1
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Evidence From Factor Analysis
Factor analysis: statistical procedure ID common factors in group of tests
-Developed by Spearman and Pearson
-Provides clues about nature of intelligence but not a theory of intelligence
If scores on several tests correlate well with one another, the tests or subtests measure the same
factor
Birren and Morrison Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - 11 subtests on 933 people
-Analysis revealed three factors (general intelligence, maintaining info in short term memory and
manipulating numbers, spatial ability)
-Factor Loadings degree to which a test is correlated to a factor
WAIS useful predictor of scholastic performance but does not include stuff like music and sports
Thurstone 56 tests to 218 college students, identified 7 factors (verbal comprehension, verbal
fluency, number, spatial visualization, memory, reasoning, perceptual speed)
Esenck suggested second factor analysis can be done on Thurstone’s factors, if common factor
among them, it would support the G Factor
Horn and Cattell performed the second factor analysis and found two major factors: fluid
intelligence and crystallized intelligence
Fluid Intelligence: relatively culture-free tasks (see relations between items or seeing patterns)
(Casual Learning/Innate)
Crystallized Intelligence: acquire information from their culture such as vocab and info learned
in school (School Learning/what a person accomplishes through their fluid)
An Information Processing Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg success achieved in life strongly affected by analyzing and managing unique
combination of strength and weaknesses
-Devised Triarchic theory of intelligence derived from information processing approach
(Analytic, Creative and Practical Intelligences)
Successful Intelligence: ability to analyze one’s strengths and weaknesses, use strengths to great
advantage, and minimize impact of weaknesses by overcoming or compensating for them
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Analytic Intelligence: mental mechanism used to plan and execute tasks; includes
metacomponents, performance, and knowledge acquisition components
-Metacomponents nature of intellectual problem, select strategy for solving and allocate
resources
-Performance Components processes actually used to perform the task
-Knowledge Acquisition Components use to gain new knowledge by sifting out relevant info
and integrating with things already known
Creative Intelligence: ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to solve problems
automatically that have been encountered before
Practical Intelligence: reflects behaviours that were subject to natural selection: adaption,
selection, shaping
damage to frontal lobe support practical intelligence importance still score high on intelligence
tests, though no longer able to plan their lives
Neuropsychological Theories of Intelligence
Garner theory of multiple intelligences, rejecting idea of a single or few primary types
Logical-Mathematical: Ability to reason logically and process math equations
Verbal-Linguistic: Ability to use language, sensitivity to meanings and sounds of words
Visual-Spatial: Ability to understand patterns in closed or open spaces
Naturalist: Ability to understand patterns in nature
Bodily-Kinesthetic: Ability to control the body precisely
Musical: Ability to understand and create musical patterns
Intrapersonal: Ability to understand the self, one’s skills, emotions, thoughts and intentions
Interpersonal: Ability to recognize differences among people; understand their emotions,
intentions and motivations
Existential: intelligence of big questions
Syllogism: logical construction =major premise, minor premise and conclusion
(All birds have feathers; Canada Goose is a bird; Canada Goose has feathers)
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Document Summary

Intelligence: person"s ability to learn and remember info, recognize concepts + relations, apply info to own behaviour in adaptive way. Any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgements. Differential approach: tests that id and measure indiv. diff. in people"s knowledge and ability to solve problems. Developmental approach: the way children learn to perceive, manipulate,+ think about world. Information processing approach: skills people use to think and to solve problems. Spearman person"s performance on test determined by 2 factors, g & s. G factor factor of intelligence common to all intellectual tasks (i. e. apprehension of experience, eduction of relations/correlates) S factor factor of intelligence specific to a particular task. Solving analogies requires all three g factor abilities. Apprehension of experience (reading and understanding the words in the analogy) Eduction of relations (ability to perceive the relation) Eduction of correlates (apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar one)

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