PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes -James Mill, Maria Montessori, Comparative Psychology

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6 Nov 2011
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PSY Exam Prep – Chap 1
- psychology comes from the Greek words: “psukhe” soul/breath and “logos” reason/word
Fields of Psychology:
physiological psychology – examines the physiology of behaviour especially the nervous
system; also studies behaviour in animals including memory, learning, sensory processes,
sexual behaviour, motivation
comparative psychology – studies behaviours of different organisms to understand the
adaptive and functional significance
behaviour analysis – effect of environment on behaviour; cause and effect*
behaviour genetics – studies the role of genetics in behaviour
cognitive psychology – study of the complex behaviour and processes such as perception,
learning, attention
cognitive neuroscience – studies the psychological functions by looking at brain and
mechanisms that are responsible for them
developmental psychology – changes in behavioural as a function of age and experience
social psychology – the affects people have on each other’s behaviour
personality psychology – studies individual differences and patterns of behaviour
evolutionary psychology – studies in terms of adaptive advantages that specific
behaviours have during the evolution; natural selection*
cross-cultural – studies the effects different cultures have on behaviour
clinical psychology – studies the treatment of abnormal behaviour and disorders
Psychologists:
Rene Descartes – RATIONALISM – pursuit of truth through reason
obelieved in dualism – the belief that the mind and the body are separate; which are
mind and matter
ocalled the father modern of philosophy
orationalization – perceive the world through reason; through sensory perceptions
(eyes, ears, nose, mouth)
ohumans are machines affected by natural causes and produces natural effects; God
created the world and ‘let it be’
oexample: hot object with finger – natural reflex, the mind does not have to think
about it
owhat set him apart from others who believed in dualism, was that he believed
there was a causal link that existed between the mind and the body – mind
controls the body and the body tells the mind what is happening in the
environment
ostrong believer in the church which is why is believed in innate ideas – we are
born with pre-conceived notions
owas the first to have a model modelling the reflexes of muscles – muscles are
balloons
John Locke – EMPIRICISM – pursuit of truth through observation and experience
oNo innate ideas: Tabula rasa (clean slate)
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