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Psychology Chapter 8: Memory
Overview of Memory:
-Memory: the cognitive processes of encoding, storing, and retrieving information
-Encoding: the process by which sensory information is converted into a form that can be used
by the brains memory system
-Storage: the process of maintaining information in memory
-Retrieval: the active processes of locating and using stored information
-Donald Hebb: used this distinction to suggest that the brain remembered information in two
different ways, a view known as dual trace theory
-Sensory Memory: memory in which representations of the physical features of a stimulus are
stored for very brief durations
-Short-Term Memory: an immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived. It is
limited in terms of both capacity (7 + 2 chunks of information) and duration (less than 20 secs)
-Long-Term Memory: memory in which is represented on a permanent or near-permanent basis
Sensory Memory:
-Info that we have just perceived remains in sensory memory just long enough to be transferred
to short-term memory
Iconic Memory:
- Iconic Memory: a form of sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that has
just been perceived; also known as visual persistence
Echoic Memory:
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-Echoic Memory: a form of sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived (auditory)
-Necessary for comprehending sounds
-can last up to 20 seconds
Short-Term or Working Memory:
-Has a limited capacity
-Most is forgotten
Encoding of Information in the Short Term: Interaction with Long-Term Memory:
-Short-term memory contains information when we are trying to encode that information and
when we are trying to retrieve it
-Working Memory: memory for new information and information retrieved from long-term
memory; used in this text as another name for short-term memory
-represents the ability to remember what we perceived and to think about it in terms of what we
already know
Primacy and Recency Effects:
-Primacy Effect: the tendency to remember initial information. In the memorization of a list of
words, the primacy effect is evidenced by better recall of the words early in the list
-Recency Effect: the tendency to recall later information. In the memorization of a list of words,
the recency effect is evidenced by better recall of the last words in the list
The Limits of Working Memory:
-Chunking: a process by which information is simplified by rules, which make it easily
remembered once the rules are learned. For example, the strings of letters GSTCBCRCMP are
easier to remember if a person learns the rule that organizes them into smallerchinks: GST
CBC and RCMP
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Varieties of Working Memory:
-evidence to show that working memory contain a variety of sensory information: visual,
auditory, somatosensory, gustatory, and olfactory
-can also contain information about movements that we have just made
-Baddeley:central executive” function.
One component maintains verbal info, another retains memories of visual stimuli
-Phonological Short-Term Memory: short-term memory for verbal information
-Subvocal Articulation: an unvoiced speech utterance
-Conduction Aphasia: an inability to remember words that are heard, although they usually can
be understood and responded to appropriately. This disability is caused by damage to Wernickes
(perception and speech) and Brocas (production of speech) areas
Loss of Information from Short-Term Memory:
-Enters from memory sensory and from long-term memory, is rehearsed, thought about,
modified, then leaves
-Some controls ongoing behaviour and some causes changes in long-term memory, but is lost
from short-term memory
-Working memory is like a juggler maintaining the balls in the air
Learning and Encoding in Long-Term Memory:
-Once info is in long-term memory successfully, it remains relatively stable
-We contain visual, auditory, olfactory, somatosensory, and gustatory memories
Can be interconnected
-Perceptual memories involve alternations in circuits of neurons in the sensory association cortex
of the brain
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Document Summary

Memory: the cognitive processes of encoding, storing, and retrieving information. Encoding: the process by which sensory information is converted into a form that can be used by the brain"s memory system. Storage: the process of maintaining information in memory. Retrieval: the active processes of locating and using stored information. Donald hebb: used this distinction to suggest that the brain remembered information in two different ways, a view known as dual trace theory. Sensory memory: memory in which representations of the physical features of a stimulus are stored for very brief durations. Short-term memory: an immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived. It is limited in terms of both capacity (7 + 2 chunks of information) and duration (less than 20 secs) Long-term memory: memory in which is represented on a permanent or near-permanent basis. Info that we have just perceived remains in sensory memory just long enough to be transferred to short-term memory.

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