Have taken three philosophical approaches about nature of consciousness: consciousness is not a natural phenomenon. Instead is supernatural and miraculous: we cannot understand consciousness. Exists due to human brain, but poorly explained: we are conscious due to the human brain (studied by donald hebb) It is not linked with perceiving, remembering, or thinking. It is the awareness of these processes not the processes themselves. Consciousness is not a general property of all parts of the brain. Blindsight: ability to interact behaviourally with objects while remaining consciously unaware of them (caused by damage to visual cortex) An explanation for consciousness is language (symbolic communication). Provides us with self-awareness which is built on inner speech. To express our needs, thoughts, perceptions, memories, intentions, and feelings to other people we must be able to translate private events (symbolic expressions), and our words must have an effect on the person listening with their needs, perceptions, etc.