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CA (160,000)
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PSYA01H3 (1,000)
Chapter 2.3

PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2.3: Selective Breeding, Brain Damage, Equal Opportunity


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Chapter
2.3

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Focus Questions
Which institutional safeguards are now in place to protect the well-being of research parti
1)
Does all research today require that people be informed of risks and consent to participate
2)
The topics that psychologists study deal with organisms, which raises ethical issues that m
before any study begins
include protecting the physical and mental well-being of participants, obtaining con
ensuring that their responses remain confidential
Promoting the Welfare of Research Participants
In Canada, all institutions that engage in research with humans, are required to have a re
(REB): a committee of researchers and officials at an institution charged with the protecti
participants
REBs are intended to protect individuals in two ways:
The committee weighs potential risks to the volunteers against the possible benefits
1)
It requires that volunteers agree to participate in the research
2)
Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Research
The benefits of research, that exposes humans to a virus, provides in promoting health an
weighed against the short-term risks to the people who consent to participate in these stu
Physical risks are rare in psychological research
Another source of risk is if the study asks participants to provide the experimenter with se
information
Disclosing this information is a potential threat to a person’s reputation, friends, an
The psychologists who do such research tend to be motivated by several factors
including the desire to help others, the drive to satisfy their intellectual curiosity, an
livelihood and employment
The REB serves as a third party that weighs the risks and benefits of research without bein
the outcome
Today, it is mandatory that research participants be informed of any risks to which they m
willfully volunteer to take part in a study
Obtaining Informed Consent
Before any experimental procedures begin, all participants must provide informed consen
Chapter 2.3 (Ethics in Psychological Research)
Monday, September 9, 2019
9:06 PM

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Before any experimental procedures begin, all participants must provide informed consen
must be informed ( know the purpose, tasks, and risks involved in the study) and give con
participate based on the information provided) without pressure
To be truly informed about the study, volunteers should be told, at minimum, the followi
The topic of the study
1)
The nature of any stimuli to which they will be exposed
Eg. Sounds, images, smells
i.
2)
The nature of any tasks they will complete
Eg. Tests, puzzles
i.
3)
Any potential physical, psychological, or social risks involved
4)
The steps that the researchers have taken to minimize those risks
5)
Ethical practices often involve resolving conflicting interests, and in psychological researc
between the need for informed consent and the need for “blinded” volunteers
Instead, researches use deception: misleading or only partially informing participants of th
hypothesis under investigation
Modern psychological (and psychiatric and neurological) research includes the following e
whether full consent is given:
Freedom to choose
Should not be at risk for financial loss, physical harm, or damage to their repu
not to participate
i.
1)
Equal opportunities
Volunteers should have choices
i.
Eg. Must have non-research alternatives available to them for credit if they ch
in a study
ii.
2)
The right to withdraw
Right to withdraw from study, without penalty
i.
3)
The right to withhold responses
Should not have to answer nay question that they feel uncomfortable answer
i.
4)
After participating in the research study, participants must go through a debriefing: the re
explain the true nature of the study, and especially the nature of and reason for any dece
The Right to Anonymity and Confidentiality
Anonymity: the data collected during a research study cannot be connected to the individ
Volunteers can respond on a survey without recording their name
This setup is deal because it reduces both methodological problems (socially desirab
social risks
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