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Chapter 1.1

PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1.1: Scientific Method, Statistical Hypothesis Testing, Critical Thinking

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Steve Joordens

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Focus Questions
How can the human mind, with it's quirks and imperfections, conduct studies on itself?
How can scientific and critical thinking steer us toward a clearer understanding of human behavi
Easy to see how psychology relates to your own life
We feel emotions, take in sensations, produce behaviours such as thoughts and actions ->
Psychology: the scientific study of behaviour, thought, and experience and how they can b
mental, social, and environmental factors
Definition shows that psychology has overlapping areas of investigation
Some goals of psychology include:
Understand how different brain structures work together to produce our behaviour
Understand how nature (genetics) and nurture (upbringing and environment) make us wh
Understand how previous experiences influence how we think and act
Understand how groups (family, culture, crowds) affect the individual
Understand how feelings of control can influence happiness and health
Understand how each of these factors can influence our well-being and contribute to psyc
Every topic in psychology can be examined from a biological, cognitive (thinking) or sociocu
All of the factors that influence you also influence other people in one way or another
By understanding these influences, you can gain a better understanding and acceptan
around you
The science of psychology would be nothing without the scientific method (empirical resul
"real world)
The Scientific Method
A person who carefully follows a system of observing, predicting, and testing is conducting
The scientific method: a way of learning about the world through collecting observations,
explain them, and using the theories to make predictions
Involves interaction between hypothesis testing and the construction of theories
Chapter 1.1 Reading (The Science of Psychology)
Friday, September 6, 2019
9:38 AM

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haviour and experience?
s -> Psychology is you
an be affected by physical,
who we are
psychological disorders
ciocultural perspective
eptance of the people
esults, tests in labs and the
ting science
ons, developing theories to

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Hypotheses: Making Predictions
Scientific thinking and procedures revolve around the concepts of a hypothesis and theory
Important to differentiate between these terms!!!
Hypothesis: a testable prediction about processes that can be observed and measured
Can be supported or rejected after testing the hypothesis
You cannot prove a hypothesis because it is always possible that a future experimen
wrong or limited in some way
For a hypothesis to be testable, it must be falsifiable (hypothesis is precise enough th
Precision is important because it will help future researchers if they replicate the stu
results were due to chance
Eg. Horoscopes make very general predictions so that you could easily find evidence and s
Pseudoscience: an idea that is presented as science but does not use basic principles of sci
Eg. Astrologers would rather you take their word for it
Theories: Explaining Phenomena
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