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Chapter 2.1

PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2.1: Kilogram, Demand Characteristics, Convenience Sampling


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Chapter
2.1

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Focus Questions
We hear claims from marketers and politicians every day, but how can we evaluate them?
1)
Can we evaluate evidence even if we are not scientists?
2)
Most important aspect of scientific research is that it strives for objectivity
Objectivity assumes that certain facts about the world can be observed and tested in
individual who describes them
Everyone should be able to agree on the facts given the same tools, methods and context
As soon as people observe an event, it's subjective
Their knowledge of the event is shaped by prior beliefs, expectations, experiences an
Five Characteristics of Quality Scientific Research
Quality scientific research meets this criteria:
It is based on measurements that are objective, valid, and reliable
1)
It can be generalized
2)
It uses techniques that reduce bias
3)
It is made public
4)
It can be replicated
5)
Scientific Measurement: Objectivity
Foundation of scientific methodology is the use of objective measurements
Objective measurements: the measure of an entity of behaviour that, within an allow
consistent across instruments and observers
The way that a quality or behaviour is measured must be the same regardless of who
and the exact tool being used
Researchers don't choose how much mass a kilogram is worth
Eg. Your weight will vary slightly from scale or scale
Called margin of error
Weight would be considered a variable: the object, concept, or event being measured
Variables can be described and measured
For most of psychology's history, measurements involved observations of behaviour in diff
examinations of how participants responded on a questionnaire or to stimuli presented on
Chapter 2.1 Reading (Principles of Scientific Research)
Monday, September 9, 2019
9:05 PM

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em?
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es and mood
allowed margin of error, is
who is doing the measuring
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examinations of how participants responded on a questionnaire or to stimuli presented on
BUT as technology advanced, so did the ability to ask psychological questions in new
High tech equipment (eg. fMRI) allows researchers to view the brain and see which areas ar
perform different tasks such as remembering words or viewing emotional pictures
Other measures can include gathering samples of blood or saliva -> can be analyzed
and other biological variables that relate to behaviour and mental functioning
Now possible to examine the same variable (eg. Anxiety)
Any method used by a researcher to measure a variable needs to include carefully defined
Operational Definitions: statements that describe the procedures or operations and
are used to record observations
Conclusions against the Mozart effect prove to anyone making policy decisions that involv
Important to thoroughly examine the existing research literature before you make an
Scientific Measurement: Reliability and Validity
After defining terms, researchers have to figure out the tools they plan to use to measure
interest
The behavioural measurements that psychologists make must be valid and reliable
Validity: the degree to which an instrument or procedure actually measures what it claims
The creation of valid measures is time-consuming and requires a great deal of testin
A measurement must also be reliable
When a measure demonstrates reliability: when is provides consistent and stable an
observations and points in time
Different types of reliability that affect psychological research
Test-retest reliability
Examines whether scores on a given measure of behaviour are consistent acro
i.
1)
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