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Chapter 5.1

PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5.1: Circadian Rhythm, Pineal Gland, Sleep Disorder

Course Code
Steve Joordens

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Biological Rhythms of Consciousness: Wakefulness and Sleep
REM behaviour disorder: people who act out their dreams
Focus Questions
How do body rhythms affect memory and thinking?
What is REM and how is it related to dreaming?
Consciousness: a person's subjective awareness, including thoughts, perceptions, experien
of the world, and self-awareness
Everyday we go through many changes in consciousness
Our thoughts and perceptions are constantly adapting to new situations
Biological Rhythms
Organisms have evolved biological rhythms that are neatly adapted to the cycles in their
Eg. Bear hibernating during winter because it is a part of a circannual rhythm (a year
Infradian rhythm: any rhythm that occurs over a period of time longer than a day
Eg. Humans have the menstrual cycle
Ultradian rhythms: biological rhythms occurring with a much greater frequency than once
Eg. Heart rate, urinations
Circadian rhythms: internally driven daily cycle of approx. 24 hours affecting physiological
behavioural processes
Involve the tendency to be asleep or awake at specific times or to feel hungrier duri
some part of the day
Eg. We tend to sleep when it is dark outside because our circadian rhythms are regu
by daylight interacting with our nervous and endocrine (hormonal) systems
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus
Cells in retina of the eye relay messages about light levels in the environment to the
Communicates signals about light levels with the pineal gland
Pineal gland releases a hormones called melatonin, which peaks in concentration at nightti
and is reduced during wakefulness
Chapter 5.1
Saturday, October 12, 2019
2:15 PM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

a yearly
nce a
ical and
the SCN

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and is reduced during wakefulness
Two Explanations for our 24-Hour Rhythms
Entrainment: when biological rhythms become synchronized to external cues such as light,
temperature, or even a clock
Endogenous rhythms: biological rhythms that are generated by our body independent of
external cues such as light
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