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Chapter 7.2

PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7.2: Self-Reference, Memory Consolidation, Amygdala

Course Code
Steve Joordens

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Encoding and Retrieving Memories
Simonides could remember where the family was sitting to assist in burying the dead
How you encode information affects the likelihood of you remembering that information
Focus Questions
What causes some memoires to be strong while others are weak?
How can we improve our memory abilities?
Encoding and Retrieval
Memory consists of encoding new information, storing that information and then
retrieving that stored information at a later time
Encoding: the process of transforming sensory and perceptual information into memory
Retrieval: the process of accessing memorized information in order to make use of it in
the present moment
In between these two processes is the concept of storage
Storage: the time and manner is which information is retained between encoding
and retrieval
Rehearsal: The Basics of Encoding
Rehearsal: type of memorization where you recite the words over and over again
Using cue-cards is not the most effective way to remember
Study demonstrated that repeating information only had a small benefit, and this
benefit was not increased with longer rehearsal times
Chapter 7.2
Sunday, October 27, 2019
2:29 PM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

It is not how long we rehearse information, but rather how we rehearse it that
determines the effectiveness of memory
Maintenance rehearsal: prolonging exposure to information by repeating it
Does relatively little to help the formation of long-term memories
Helps us remember for a very short time
Elaborative rehearsal: prolonging exposure to information by thinking about its meaning
Significantly improves the process of encoding
Improves long-term learning and remembering
Levels of Processing
We focus on elaborative encoding for information that we intend to remember much
Where additional sensory or semantic (meaning) information is associated with the
to-be-remembered item
Not all elaborative encoding is created equal
Different types of elaborative encoding can produce markedly different levels of recall
LOP framework begins with the understanding that our ability to recall information is
most directly related to how that information was initially processed
Differences in processing can be described as a continuum ranging from shallow to deep
Shallow processing: involves more superficial properties of a stimulus, such as the
sound of spelling of a word
Deep processing: generally related to an item's meaning or its function
Study showed people were 7 times more likely to recall a deeply processed word than
one that was processed at only a shallow level
Such affects are limited to LTM
STM memory rates are unaffected by shallow or deep processing
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