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Chapter 6

PSYA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Conditioned Taste Aversion, Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Chapter
6

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Module 6.1: Classical Conditioning: Learning by Association
Learning: a process by which behaviour or knowledge changes as a result of experience
Classical conditioning: learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus elicits a response
that was originally caused by another stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response without
learning
Unconditioned response (UR): a reflexive, unlearned reaction to an
unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned stimulus (CS): a once-neutral stimulus that later elicits a conditioned
response because it has a history of being paired with an unconditioned
Conditioned response (CR): the learned response that occurs to the conditioned
stimulus
Acquisition: the initial phase of learning in which a response is established
Extinction: the loss/weakening of a conditioned response when a conditioned
stimulus and unconditioned stimulus no longer occur together
Spontaneous recovery: the reoccurrence of a previously extinguished
conditioned response, typically after some time has passed since extinction
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination:
Generalization: a process in which a response that originally occurs to a specific
stimulus also occurs to different, though similar, stimuli
Discrimination: occurs when an organism learns to respond to one original
stimulus but not to new stimuli that may be similar to the original stimulus
Conditioned emotional responses: consist of emotional and physiological responses that
develop to a specific object or situation
Preparedness: the biological predisposition to rapidly learn a response to a particular
class of stimuli
Conditioned taste aversion: acquired dislike or disgust of a food or drink because it was
paired with illness
Module 6.2: Operant Conditioning: Learning through Consequences
Operant conditioning: a type of learning in which behaviour is influenced by
consequences
Reinforcement: a process in which an event or reward that follows a response
increases the likelihood of that response occurring again
Positive: the strengthening of behaviour after potential reinforcers such
as praise, money, or nourishment follow that behavior (e.g. child gets an
allowance for making her bed, so she develops a habit of doing it)
Negative: involves the strengthening of a behaviour because it removes
or diminishes a stimulus (e.g. teh rain no longer falls on your after
opening your umbrella, so you are likely to take an umbrella whenever it
rains)
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