George Berkeley(irish) suggested that our knowledge of events in the world also requires
inferences based on the accumulation of past experiences. In other words, we must learn to
James Mill(Scottish): with the work of him, it went from animism(physical matter animated
by spirits) to materialism(mind composed entirely of matter). MATERIALISM is the
belief that reality can be known only through an understanding of the physical world, of
which the mind is a part. MILL DID NOT INVENT MATERIALISM. He worked on the
assumption that humans and animals were fundamentally the same. ESSENTIALLY, HE
AGREED WITH DESCARTES APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDINGTHE HUMAN BODY
BUT REJECTED THE CONCEPT OF AN IIMMATERIAL MIND. HE BELIEVED THAT
THE MIND, NO LESS THAN THE BODY, WAS A MACHINE.
Descartes relied on simple similarity as ``proof`` of his theory; he did not have the means to
offer a scientific proof.
Descartes hydraulic model of muscular movement was shown to be incorrect by LUIGI
GALVANI(Italian). He discovered that muscles could be made to contract by apply an
electrical current directly to them or the nerves attached to them.
JOHANNES MULLER(1801-1858) and his doctrine of specific nerve energies –
observation that the basic message sent along all nerves was the same-an electrical
impulse. The impulse was the same regardless of what the message was. So why do we see
what our eyes detect or what our ears detect? THE MESSAGES ARE SENT OVER
PIERRE FLOURENS(1774-1867) came up with experimental ablation.
PAUL BROCA(1824-1880) applied Muller’s logic and found out that the left side of the
cerebral cortex was the region of the brain for speech.
GUSTAV FRITSCH AND EDUARD HITZIG introduced the use of electrical stimulation as
a tool for mapping the functions of the brain.
HERMANN VON HELMHOLTZ found out that the speed of the nerve impulses was 27m/s
which is considerably slower than the speed of electricity in wires. Hence, the nerve
impulses is more complex than a simple electrical current passing through a wire.
ERNST WEBER (1795-1878) began work that led to the development of human sensations.
DETERMINISM is the doctrine that behaviour is the result of prior events. Determinism is
opposed to the concept of free will.