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Chapter 8

chapter 8 notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Illes

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Memory
memory cognitive process of encoding, storing and retrieving information
encoding process by which sensory information is converted into a form that can be
used by brain's memory system
storage process of maintaining information in memory
retrieval active process of locating and using stored information
literal physiological changes that occur when something is learned
metaphorical conceptual information processing models of memory
learning tendency for behaviour to change as result of experience, with performance
reflects brain's plasticity
three forms of memory: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
sensory memory memory in which representations of physical features of stimulus
are stored for very brief duration; held long enough to become part of short-term
memory, no analysis takes place but longer than perception
short-term memory immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived;
limited in capacity (7 + or 2 chunks of information) and duration (less than 20
seconds)
long-term memory memory in which information is represented on permanent or
near-permanent basis; durable, no limits
Standing showed people 10,000 colour slides and found they could recognize
them weeks later
occurs due to physical changes that take place in brain
modal model of memory - general conception of memory system
Sensory Memory
not aware only when presented briefly
have sensory memory for every modality 2 main: iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory)
Iconic Memory
iconic memory sensory memory that holds brief visual image of scene that has just
been perceived; also known as visible persistence
Sperling presented visual images through tachistoscope at rate of 9 letters on
screen for 50 milliseconds
on average, person could remember 4 or 5 but insisted that for brief time could see
more but images faded to fast to see all
also used partial report procedure to determine whether capacity of iconic memory
accounted for this limitation
asked people to name letters in only one horizontal row indicated by a tone
after letters disappeared
able to repeat letters with perfect accuracy iconic memory had capacity for all
9
if delay of tone was longer than 1 second people could onyl relay 50%
www.notesolution.com
could not recall all 9 because had faded from memory
Echoic Memory
echoic memory sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived
necessary for comprehending sound, particularly those that constitute speech cannot
identify word until we have heard whole sound so accoustical information must be
stored temporarliy until all sounds have been received
evidence from partial reporting shows that it lasts less than 4 seconds
Short-Term or Working Memory
Encoding of Information: Interaction with Long-Term Memory
information can enter st memory from sensory of lt memory
working memory memory for new information and information retrieved from
long-term memory; same as st memory
represents behaviour that takes place inside our head represents our ability to
remember what we have just perceived and to think about it in terms of what we
already know
Primacy and Recency Effects
free-recall task remember what you can of information that was just given to you
primacy effect tendency to remember initial information due to opportunity for
rehearsal which causes them to be stored in lt memory
recency effect tendency to remember later information due to fact that they are
last to be rehearsed so are still in st memory
pointed out by Atkinson and Shiffrin
Limits of Working Memory
Llyod and Margaret Peterson presented people with stimuli composed of 3
consonants: JRG
people recalled info 30 seconds later
when made to count backwards from 3-4 digit numbers consonants were only
accesible for a few seconds and dropped to zero after 15-18 seconds
stimuli remain in st memory for 20 seconds unless rehearsed
Miller the magical number 7 plus or minu 2: people can retain on average 7+or- 2
pieces of information
chunking process by which information is simplified by rules, which make it
easily remembered once rules are learned
can remember more if information can be organized into more meaningful sequence
McNamara and Scott taught people to chain unrelated words together as they
listened to them imagined story involving those words
Varieties of Working Memory
Phonological Working Memory:
phonological short-term memory short term memory for verbal information
(whether presented visually or accoustically)
Conrad showed how quickly visually presented information becomes encoded
www.notesolution.com
acoustically
briefly showed people lists of 6 letters and then asked them to write letters
saw letters visually but when made errors, they were accoustical (V vs. B)
shows that words were encoded acoustically
phonological memory may be produced by activity in auditory system by circuits of
neurons in auditory association cortex
subvocal articulation unvoiced speech utterance
although no actual movement may occur, is possible activity occurs in neural circuits
that control speech
when we invision something in our minds It is caused by activity in neurons in visual
association cortex
voice in head is probably from activity of neurons in motor association cortex
Conrad attempted to determine whether subvocal articulation played role in
phonological working memory
study on deaf children (could not confuse letters because of their sounds)
children who made accoustical errors were ones who were rated as best speakers
by teachers
deaf children who could speak best encoded letters in terms of movements they
would make to pronounce them
clear evidence for articulatory code in working memory
people may use acoustical and articulatory coding simulatenously say word and feel
themselves say it in head
phonological code stored in lt memory also might help to strengthen rehearsed
information
conduction aphasia is best evidence for existence of phonoligcal st memory
conduction aphasia inability to remember words that are heard, although they
usually can be understood and responded to appropriately; caused by damage to the
connection between Wernicke's and Broca's - deficit in phonological working memory;
might disrupt acoustical st memory by making such subvocal verbal rehearsal difficult
or impossible
Visual Working Memory:
possess working memory that contains visual information either obtained from
immediate environment by means of sense organs or retrieved from lt memory
does not encode all details find prototype in lt memory
DeGroot showed chessboards to expert players and to novices and if position of
pieces represented game in progress, experts could glance at board for a few seconds
and then look away and report position of each piece but novices could not; experts
could also recognize immediately if positions were placed haphazardly
st memories for positions depended on organizational rules stored in lt memory as
result of years of chess playing
Gzowski found similar pattern in Gretzsky's hockey playing
have ability to manipulate visual information in working memory
Shepard and Metzler presented people with pairs of drawings that could be
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Description
Memory memory cognitive process of encoding, storing and retrieving information encoding process by which sensory information is converted into a form that can be used by brains memory system storage process of maintaining information in memory retrieval active process of locating and using stored information literal physiological changes that occur when something is learned metaphorical conceptual information processing models of memory learning tendency for behaviour to change as result of experience, with performance reflects brains plasticity three forms of memory: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory sensory memory memory in which representations of physical features of stimulus are stored for very brief duration; held long enough to become part of short-term memory, no analysis takes place but longer than perception short-term memory immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived; limited in capacity (7 + or 2 chunks of information) and duration (less than 20 seconds) long-term memory memory in which information is represented on permanent or near-permanent basis; durable, no limits Standing showed people 10,000 colour slides and found they could recognize them weeks later occurs due to physical changes that take place in brain modal model of memory - general conception of memory system Sensory Memory not aware only when presented briefly have sensory memory for every modality 2 main: iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory) Iconic Memory iconic memory sensory memory that holds brief visual image of scene that has just been perceived; also known as visible persistence Sperling presented visual images through tachistoscope at rate of 9 letters on screen for 50 milliseconds on average, person could remember 4 or 5 but insisted that for brief time could see more but images faded to fast to seeall also used partial report procedure to determine whether capacity of iconic memory accounted for this limitation asked people to name letters in only one horizontal row indicated by a tone after letters disappeared able to repeat letters with perfect accuracy iconic memory had capacity for all 9 if delay of tone was longer than 1 second people could onyl relay 50% www.notesolution.com could not recall all 9 because had faded from memory Echoic Memory echoic memory sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived necessary for comprehending sound, particularly those that constitute speech cannot identify word until we have heard whole sound so accoustical information must be stored temporarliy until all sounds have been received evidence from partial reporting shows that it lasts less than 4 seconds Short-Term or Working Memory Encoding of Information: Interaction with Long-Term Memory information can enter st memory from sensory of lt memory working memory memory for new information and information retrieved from long-term memory; same as st memory represents behaviour that takes place inside our head represents our ability to remember what we have just perceived and to think about it in terms of what we already know Primacy and Recency Effects free-recall task remember what you can of information that was just given to you primacy effect tendency to remember initial information due to opportunity for rehearsal which causes them to be stored in lt memory recency effect tendency to remember later information due to fact that they are last to be rehearsed so are still in st memory pointed out by Atkinson and Shiffrin Limits of Working Memory Llyod and Margaret Peterson presented people with stimuli composed of 3 consonants: JRG people recalled info 30 seconds later when made to count backwards from 3-4 digit numbers consonants were only accesible for a few seconds and dropped to zero after 15-18 seconds stimuli remain in st memory for 20 seconds unless rehearsed Miller the magical number 7 plus or minu 2: people can retain on average 7+or- 2 pieces of information chunking process by which information is simplified by rules, which make it easily remembered once rules are learned can remember more if information can be organized into more meaningful sequence McNamara and Scott taught people to chain unrelated words together as they listened to them imagined story involving those words Varieties of Working Memory Phonological Working Memory: phonological short-term memory short term memory for verbal information (whether presented visually or accoustically) Conrad showed how quickly visually presented information becomes encoded www.notesolution.com
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