60 views12 pages
School
Department
Course
Professor
Memory
memory – cognitive process of encoding, storing and retrieving information
encoding – process by which sensory information is converted into a form that can be
used by brain's memory system
storage – process of maintaining information in memory
retrieval – active process of locating and using stored information
literal – physiological changes that occur when something is learned
metaphorical – conceptual information processing models of memory
learning – tendency for behaviour to change as result of experience, with performance
reflects brain's plasticity
three forms of memory: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
sensory memory – memory in which representations of physical features of stimulus
are stored for very brief duration; held long enough to become part of short-term
memory, no analysis takes place but longer than perception
short-term memory – immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived;
limited in capacity (7 + or – 2 chunks of information) and duration (less than 20
seconds)
long-term memory – memory in which information is represented on permanent or
near-permanent basis; durable, no limits
Standing – showed people 10,000 colour slides and found they could recognize
them weeks later
occurs due to physical changes that take place in brain
ξ€β€œmodal model” of memory - general conception of memory system
Sensory Memory
not aware – only when presented briefly
have sensory memory for every modality – 2 main: iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory)
Iconic Memory
iconic memory – sensory memory that holds brief visual image of scene that has just
been perceived; also known as visible persistence
Sperling – presented visual images through tachistoscope at rate of 9 letters on
screen for 50 milliseconds
on average, person could remember 4 or 5 but insisted that for brief time could see
more but images faded to fast to see all
also used partial report procedure to determine whether capacity of iconic memory
accounted for this limitation
asked people to name letters in only one horizontal row indicated by a tone
after letters disappeared
able to repeat letters with perfect accuracy – iconic memory had capacity for all
9
if delay of tone was longer than 1 second people could onyl relay 50%
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
could not recall all 9 because had faded from memory
Echoic Memory
echoic memory – sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived
necessary for comprehending sound, particularly those that constitute speech – cannot
identify word until we have heard whole sound so accoustical information must be
stored temporarliy until all sounds have been received
evidence from partial reporting shows that it lasts less than 4 seconds
Short-Term or Working Memory
Encoding of Information: Interaction with Long-Term Memory
information can enter st memory from sensory of lt memory
working memory – memory for new information and information retrieved from
long-term memory; same as st memory
represents behaviour that takes place inside our head – represents our ability to
remember what we have just perceived and to think about it in terms of what we
already know
Primacy and Recency Effects
free-recall task – remember what you can of information that was just given to you
primacy effect – tendency to remember initial information due to opportunity for
rehearsal which causes them to be stored in lt memory
recency effect – tendency to remember later information due to fact that they are
last to be rehearsed so are still in st memory
pointed out by Atkinson and Shiffrin
Limits of Working Memory
Llyod and Margaret Peterson – presented people with stimuli composed of 3
consonants: JRG
people recalled info 30 seconds later
when made to count backwards from 3-4 digit numbers consonants were only
accesible for a few seconds and dropped to zero after 15-18 seconds
stimuli remain in st memory for 20 seconds unless rehearsed
Miller – the magical number 7 plus or minu 2: people can retain on average 7+or- 2
pieces of information
chunking – process by which information is simplified by rules, which make it
easily remembered once rules are learned
can remember more if information can be organized into more meaningful sequence
McNamara and Scott – taught people to chain unrelated words together as they
listened to them – imagined story involving those words
Varieties of Working Memory
Phonological Working Memory:
phonological short-term memory – short term memory for verbal information
(whether presented visually or accoustically)
Conrad – showed how quickly visually presented information becomes encoded
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
acoustically
briefly showed people lists of 6 letters and then asked them to write letters
saw letters visually but when made errors, they were accoustical (V vs. B)
shows that words were encoded acoustically
phonological memory may be produced by activity in auditory system by circuits of
neurons in auditory association cortex
subvocal articulation – unvoiced speech utterance
although no actual movement may occur, is possible activity occurs in neural circuits
that control speech
when we invision something in our minds It is caused by activity in neurons in visual
association cortex
voice in head is probably from activity of neurons in motor association cortex
Conrad – attempted to determine whether subvocal articulation played role in
phonological working memory
study on deaf children (could not confuse letters because of their sounds)
children who made accoustical errors were ones who were rated as best speakers
by teachers
deaf children who could speak best encoded letters in terms of movements they
would make to pronounce them
clear evidence for articulatory code in working memory
people may use acoustical and articulatory coding – simulatenously say word and feel
themselves say it in head
phonological code stored in lt memory also might help to strengthen rehearsed
information
conduction aphasia is best evidence for existence of phonoligcal st memory
conduction aphasia – inability to remember words that are heard, although they
usually can be understood and responded to appropriately; caused by damage to the
connection between Wernicke's and Broca's - deficit in phonological working memory;
might disrupt acoustical st memory by making such subvocal verbal rehearsal difficult
or impossible
 Visual Working Memory:
possess working memory that contains visual information either obtained from
immediate environment by means of sense organs or retrieved from lt memory
does not encode all details – find prototype in lt memory
DeGroot – showed chessboards to expert players and to novices and if position of
pieces represented game in progress, experts could glance at board for a few seconds
and then look away and report position of each piece but novices could not; experts
could also recognize immediately if positions were placed haphazardly
st memories for positions depended on organizational rules stored in lt memory as
result of years of chess playing
Gzowski – found similar pattern in Gretzsky's hockey playing
have ability to manipulate visual information in working memory
Shepard and Metzler – presented people with pairs of drawings that could be
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

memory cognitive process of encoding, storing and retrieving information. encoding process by which sensory information is converted into a form that can be used by brain"s memory system. storage process of maintaining information in memory. retrieval active process of locating and using stored information. literal physiological changes that occur when something is learned. metaphorical conceptual information processing models of memory. learning tendency for behaviour to change as result of experience, with performance reflects brain"s plasticity. three forms of memory: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. sensory memory memory in which representations of physical features of stimulus are stored for very brief duration; held long enough to become part of short-term memory, no analysis takes place but longer than perception. short-term memory immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived; limited in capacity (7 + or 2 chunks of information) and duration (less than 20 seconds)

Get access

Grade+20% OFF
$8 USD/m$10 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Grade+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
40 Verified Answers
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Class+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
30 Verified Answers