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14 Dec 2010
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Chapter 4 – The Biology of Behaviour
Structure of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System – brain and spinal cord
Spinal Cord – attaches brain to spinal cord
Nerves – transmits information from brain to organs
Peripheral Nervous System – sensory system
Cranial nerves – sensory information from head to muscles
Spinal nerve – sensory information from body to muscles
brain stem – stem of brain
cerebral hemispheres – covered by cerebral cortex
cerebellum – under central hemispheres; controls movements
vertebra – encase spinal cord
meninges – layers of membrane that protect the brain
cerebrospinal fluid – liquid in the area of brain
blood-brain barrier – barrier between blood and brain prevents other substances reaching brain
cerebral cortex – outer layer of cerebral hemispheres
grey matter – contains cells, not much complexity
white matter – axons; complex thinking
the more wrinkled the brain, the more brain tissue
Cells of the nervous system
Neurons – sensory information, stores memories; dendrites and axon
Glia – support for neurons, provides nutrients and protection
Dendrites – receives messages
Dendritic spines – surface of dendrites
Soma – cell body; largest part of neuron; controls cell; receives information from neurons
Axon – carries message from soma to other cells
Terminal buttons – secretes neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitter – chemical message passed down from one neuron to another
Myelin – fat that is a jelly so messages don’t get mixed up; increases speed of messages
The Excitable Axon: The Action Potential
Action potential – electrical charge starting the transmission of a message
Ion – positive or negative; in water
Ion channel – entry or exit of ion
Ion transporter – transports ion in or out of cell
All-or-none law – once an action goes through, it has to go through
Sensory neurons – external or environmental changes; notifies the CNS
Motor neurons – nerve to axon; muscles
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Document Summary

Central nervous system brain and spinal cord. Spinal cord attaches brain to spinal cord. Nerves transmits information from brain to organs. Cranial nerves sensory information from head to muscles. Neurons sensory information, stores memories; dendrites and axon. Glia support for neurons, provides nutrients and protection. Soma cell body; largest part of neuron; controls cell; receives information from neurons. Axon carries message from soma to other cells. Neurotransmitter chemical message passed down from one neuron to another. Myelin fat that is a jelly so messages don"t get mixed up; increases speed of messages. Action potential electrical charge starting the transmission of a message. Ion channel entry or exit of ion. Ion transporter transports ion in or out of cell. All-or-none law once an action goes through, it has to go through. Sensory neurons external or environmental changes; notifies the cns. Motor neurons nerve to axon; muscles www. notesolution. com. What connects the neuron to muscle, another neuron.

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