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PSYA01H3 (1,302)
Steve Joordens (1,140)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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Chapter 4 – The Biology of Behaviour
Structure of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System brain and spinal cord
Spinal Cord attaches brain to spinal cord
Nerves transmits information from brain to organs
Peripheral Nervous Systemsensory system
Cranial nerves sensory information from head to muscles
Spinal nervesensory information from body to muscles
brain stemstem of brain
cerebral hemispherescovered by cerebral cortex
cerebellumunder central hemispheres; controls movements
vertebraencase spinal cord
meninges layers of membrane that protect the brain
cerebrospinal fluid – liquid in the area of brain
blood-brain barrierbarrier between blood and brain prevents other substances reaching brain
cerebral cortex – outer layer of cerebral hemispheres
grey mattercontains cells, not much complexity
white matteraxons; complex thinking
the more wrinkled the brain, the more brain tissue
Cells of the nervous system
Neurons sensory information, stores memories; dendrites and axon
Gliasupport for neurons, provides nutrients and protection
Dendritesreceives messages
Dendritic spines surface of dendrites
Soma – cell body; largest part of neuron; controls cell; receives information from neurons
Axoncarries message from soma to other cells
Terminal buttons secretes neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitterchemical message passed down from one neuron to another
Myelinfat that is a jelly so messages dont get mixed up; increases speed of messages
The Excitable Axon: The Action Potential
Action potentialelectrical charge starting the transmission of a message
Ion positive or negative; in water
Ion channel entry or exit of ion
Ion transportertransports ion in or out of cell
All-or-none lawonce an action goes through, it has to go through
Sensory neuronsexternal or environmental changes; notifies the CNS
Motor neuronsnerve to axon; muscles
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Description
Chapter 4 The Biology of Behaviour Structure of the Nervous System Central Nervous System brain and spinal cord Spinal Cord attaches brain to spinal cord Nerves transmits information from brain to organs Peripheral Nervous System sensory system Cranial nerves sensory information from head to muscles Spinal nerve sensory information from body to muscles brain stem stem of brain cerebral hemispheres covered by cerebral cortex cerebellum under central hemispheres; controls movements vertebra encase spinal cord meninges layers of membrane that protect the brain cerebrospinal fluid liquid in the area of brain blood-brain barrier barrier between blood and brain prevents other substances reaching brain cerebral cortex outer layer of cerebral hemispheres grey matter contains cells, not much complexity white matter axons; complex thinking the more wrinkled the brain, the more brain tissue Cells of the nervous system Neurons sensory information, stores memories; dendrites and axon Glia support for neurons, provides nutrients and protection Dendrites receives messages Dendritic spines surface of dendrites Soma cell body; largest part of neuron; controls cell; receives information from neurons Axon carries message from soma to other cells Terminal buttons secretes neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter chemical message passed down from one neuron to another Myelin fat that is a jelly so messages dont get mixed up; increases speed of messages The Excitable Axon: The Action Potential Action potential electrical charge starting the transmission of a message Ion positive or negative; in water Ion channel entry or exit of ion Ion transporter transports ion in or out of cell All-or-none law once an action goes through, it has to go through Sensory neurons external or environmental changes; notifies the CNS Motor neurons nerve to axon; muscles www.notesolution.com
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