Chapter 4

20 views4 pages
Published on 14 Dec 2010
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Chapter 4 – The Biology of Behaviour
Structure of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System brain and spinal cord
Spinal Cord attaches brain to spinal cord
Nerves transmits information from brain to organs
Peripheral Nervous Systemsensory system
Cranial nerves sensory information from head to muscles
Spinal nervesensory information from body to muscles
brain stemstem of brain
cerebral hemispherescovered by cerebral cortex
cerebellumunder central hemispheres; controls movements
vertebraencase spinal cord
meninges layers of membrane that protect the brain
cerebrospinal fluid – liquid in the area of brain
blood-brain barrierbarrier between blood and brain prevents other substances reaching brain
cerebral cortex – outer layer of cerebral hemispheres
grey mattercontains cells, not much complexity
white matteraxons; complex thinking
the more wrinkled the brain, the more brain tissue
Cells of the nervous system
Neurons sensory information, stores memories; dendrites and axon
Gliasupport for neurons, provides nutrients and protection
Dendritesreceives messages
Dendritic spines surface of dendrites
Soma – cell body; largest part of neuron; controls cell; receives information from neurons
Axoncarries message from soma to other cells
Terminal buttons secretes neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitterchemical message passed down from one neuron to another
Myelinfat that is a jelly so messages dont get mixed up; increases speed of messages
The Excitable Axon: The Action Potential
Action potentialelectrical charge starting the transmission of a message
Ion positive or negative; in water
Ion channel entry or exit of ion
Ion transportertransports ion in or out of cell
All-or-none lawonce an action goes through, it has to go through
Sensory neuronsexternal or environmental changes; notifies the CNS
Motor neuronsnerve to axon; muscles
www.notesolution.com
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Document Summary

Central nervous system brain and spinal cord. Spinal cord attaches brain to spinal cord. Nerves transmits information from brain to organs. Cranial nerves sensory information from head to muscles. Neurons sensory information, stores memories; dendrites and axon. Glia support for neurons, provides nutrients and protection. Soma cell body; largest part of neuron; controls cell; receives information from neurons. Axon carries message from soma to other cells. Neurotransmitter chemical message passed down from one neuron to another. Myelin fat that is a jelly so messages don"t get mixed up; increases speed of messages. Action potential electrical charge starting the transmission of a message. Ion channel entry or exit of ion. Ion transporter transports ion in or out of cell. All-or-none law once an action goes through, it has to go through. Sensory neurons external or environmental changes; notifies the cns. Motor neurons nerve to axon; muscles www. notesolution. com. What connects the neuron to muscle, another neuron.