Textbook Notes (378,344)
CA (167,126)
UTSC (19,207)
Psychology (9,979)
PSYA01H3 (1,302)
Steve Joordens (1,140)
Chapter

Chapter Three Notes

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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PSYA01H3
Chapter Three:
-Darwin came up with concept of biological evolution
-biological evolution: changes that take place in the genetic and physical
characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time
-> argued that over time, organisms originate and become adapted to their
environments by biological means
-adaptive significance: effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adapt to
changing environmental conditions
-novelty seeking: tendency to engage in behaviours that lead to new experiences
-psychologists interested in understanding both ultimate causes and proximate causes
of behaviour
-ultimate causes: events and conditions that, over successive generations, have
slowly shaped the behaviour of our species
-proximate causes: namely immediate environmental variables that affect behaviour
-Darwin then became interested in artificial selection
-artificial selection: procedure i which particular animals are deliberately mated to
produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics
-natural selection: the consequence of the fact that, because there are physical and
behavioural differences among organisms, they reproduce differentially
-> within a given population, some animals - the survivors - will produce more
offspring than will other animals
-> Alfred Wallace proposed same idea as well
-natural selection based on 2 premises:
1) individuals within a population, show variability in heritable behavioural
and physical characteristics
2) the capacity of the environment to sustain a population of any species, is
limited; producing competition
-reproductive success: number of viable offspring an individual produces relative to
the number of viable offspring
-variation: the differences among members of a species, including physical
characteristics and behavioural characteristics
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Description
PSYA01H3 Chapter Three: - Darwin came up with concept of biological evolution - biological evolution: changes that take place in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time -> argued that over time, organisms originate and become adapted to their environments by biological means - adaptive significance: effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions - novelty seeking: tendency to engage in behaviours that lead to new experiences - psychologists interested in understanding both ultimate causes and proximate causes of behaviour - ultimate causes: events and conditions that, over successive generations, have slowly shaped the behaviour of our species - proximate causes: namely immediate environmental variables that affect behaviour - Darwin then became interested in artificial selection - artificial selection: procedure i which particular animals are deliberately mated to produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics - natural selection: the consequence of the fact that, because there are physical and behavioural differences among organisms, they reproduce differentially -> within a given population, some animals - the survivors - will produce more offspring than will other animals -> Alfred Wallace proposed same idea as well - natural selection based on 2 premises: 1) individuals within a population, show variability in heritable behavioural and physical characteristics 2) the capacity of the environment to sustain a population of any species, is limited; producing competition - reproductive success: number of viable offspring an individual produces relative to the number of viable offspring - variation: the differences among members of a species, including physical characteristics and behavioural characteristics www.notesolution.com
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